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From copy oumed by the American Antiqvarian Society 


Vol. XXXIV. JUNE, 1939. No. 2. 


By Joseph Towne Wheeler 

In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the cultural 
history of colonial Maryland. This has been evidenced by the pub- 
lication of several books and articles. The subject has been ap- 
proached from three general points of view. The first, and perhaps 
the most obvious approach was to examine the literature produced 
by local writers to determine the origin of the literary forms used 
and the sources of the ideas found.' Another approach was that of 
recording the issues of the printing press and of investigating in so 
far as was possible the forces which led to the publication of each 
item.^ The third method of studying the literary culture of the 
colony was that of examining the records of books in private libraries, 
parochial libraries, circulating libraries and bookstores, and discover- 
ing the reading interests of the people as shown in their corre- 
spondence and private journals." The purpose of this article is to 
present the early history of bookstores and circulating libraries in the 
colony and to show the part they played in stimulating an interest in 
reading among the colonists. 

The earliest recorded Maryland bookseller is Evan Jones, whose 
name appeared on the title page of the Rev. Thomas Bray's Necessity 
of an Early Religion, printed by Thcanas Reading at Annapolis in 

^ Bernard C. Steiner, Early Maryland Poetry, Baltimore, 1900. Lawrence C. Wroth, 
" James Sterling: Poet, Priest, and Prophet of Empire " in American Antiquarian 
Society Proceedings as. 41 (1931) 25-76. Carl L. Carlson, "Richard Lewis and the 
Reception of His Work in England " in American Uterature 9 (1937) 301-316. Law- 
rence C. Wroth, "Maryland Muse by Ebenezer Cooke," in American Antiquarian 
Society Proceedings ns. 44 (1934) 267-335. 

"Lawrence C. Wroth, History of Printing in Colonial Maryland, 1686-1776. Balti- 
more, 1922. Joseph T. Wheeler, The Maryland Press, 1777-1790. Baltimore, 1938. 

= Joseph T. Wheeler, " Literary Culture in Eighteenth Century Marylaad, 1700-1776." 
Unpublished dortoral dissertation. Brown University, 1938. 




1700.* No further references have been found mentioning him in 
this capacity and there is no record of the books he sold. He took 
an active part in colonial affairs from that date until his death in 
June, 1722. With his connections as a clerk of the two houses of 
legislature, vestryman of St. James's Parish, deputy collector of 
customs and editor of the Maryland laws of 1718 he doubtless would 
have found it profitable to operate a small bookstore. 

Beginning with William Parks, the colonial printers published 
lists of the books, almanacs and pamphlets they had recently printed 
as well as those published in the neighboring colonies. There are 
virtually no advertisements of imported books for sale in the sur- 
viving numbers of the first Maryland Gazette (1728-1734) so it 
would appear that Parks did not operate a bookstore in connection 
with the newspaper. On one occasion he ad^rtised that he had: 

A Parcel of very curious Metzotinto Prints, to be Sold at Reasonable 
Rates. ...» 

He also frequently offered to bind books carefully and cheaply. 
After he established the Virginia Gazette in 1736, he opened a 
bookstore in Williamsburg.* 

No record has been found of another bookseller at Annapolis 
until William Rind went into partnership with Jonas Green, the 
publisher of the second Maryland Gazette, in 1758.' Rind had been 
apprenticed to Green several years before this and apparently realiz- 
ing the need for a bookstore in Annapolis, he opened one in his 
home. From 1758 to 1762 he did not go in the bookselling business 
extensively, although he occasionally advertised importations. The 
fact that in 1760 Green and Rind published an advertisement of 
Samuel Evans, an itinerant bookseller and bookbinder, would prob- 
ably indicate that Rind was not seriously interested in bookselling 
at that time. 

Just Imported from London, And to be Sold by Samuel Evans, Book Binder, 
near Mr. Howard's in Annapolis, A Collection of Books, consisting of 
History, Law, and Physic; together with great Variety of School-Books and 

During his stay here, which will be about two months, he will Bind old 
or new Books in the neatest and most expeditious Manner.* 

* For the best account of Evan Jones, see L. C. Wroth, History of Printing in 
Colonial Maryland. Baltimore, 1922, pp. 39-45. 
^Maryland Gazette, July 15, 1729, p. 4. 

' See L. C. Wroth, William Parks. Richmond, 1926, pp. 24-25. 
' L. C. Wroth, History of Printing in Colonial Maryland, p. 85, for best account of 
William Rind, Maryland and Virginia printer. 
'Maryland Gazette, May 15, 1760. 


On August 26, 1762, Rind announced the arrival of a large ship- 
ment of books from London which were for sale " at the House 
where Mrs. M'Leod formerly kept Tavern." In the next number 
of the Maryland Gazette, he published his scheme for a circulating 
library for the whole colony. When it is recalled that the earliest 
New York circulating library was started by Garrat Noel in Au- 
gust, 1763, and the first recorded Boston circulating library began in 
1765, the pioneer attempt of "William Rind in 1762 takes on greater 

The list of books which constituted the earliest known colonial 
circulating library contained nearly one hundred and fifty titles, 
one-half of which were English literature, classics or language. 
Among the titles were Thomson's Seasons, Milton's Paradise Lost 
and Regained, Hanmer's Shakespeare, Pope's Works, Swift's 
Works, Johnson's Rambler, Young's Night Thoughts, Fenelon's 
Telemachus, Voltaire's Letters on the English Nation, Montesquieu's 
Spirit of Laws, Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, Fielding's Tom Jones, 
Amelia and Joseph Andrews, Richardson's Clarissa Harlowe and 
Pamela and many other contemporary titles. 

Rind's address to the prospective subscribers is an important essay 
on the merits of circulating libraries and deserves particular atten- 
tion as the first known attempt to interest colonists in the benefits 
of an institution which was rapidly gaining support in England. 


The great Utility of diffusing a Spirit of Science thro' the Country, is too 
obvious to need any Proof, and if the Author of the following Plan has been 
so fortunate as to adapt it to this important Object, he presumes to hope 
that his Endeavours will be well received and supported by the Public. Nature 
(it is generally acknowledged) has been sufficiently bountiful to the Natives 
of this Country, in bestowing upon them the happiest Talents; but as the 
richest Soil, without due Cultivation, runs into raidc and unprofitable Weeds, 
so little Fruit can be expected from the best natural Endowments, where the 
Mind is not under the Direction of proper intellectual Aids. Among the 
many Obstacles to literary Acquirements, which the Youth of this Country 
are liable to, the Want of Books proper for their Instruction, is justly esteemed 
one of the greatest. The furnishing of a competent Library, for any tolerable 
Advancement in Letters, requires a Fortune which few People in this Part 
of the World are Masters of, whence it comes to pass, that many a fine Genius 
languishes and dies in Obscurity. The Purpose therefore of this Plan, which 
is to open and extend the Foimtains of Knowledge, which are at present shut 
against all but Men of affluent Fortunes, it is hoped, will meet wilJi the Coun- 
tenance and Patronage of every Friend to 4iis Country. If the Author of this 
Scheme finds sufficient Encouragement from this Bsaey, be piop<»es to enktge 



his Plan by the Addition of many more Books to his Catalogue, so that the 
Means of Knowledge will thereby become accessible to Men of middling 
Fortunes, and every Man will be furnished at a very easy Rate with Books 
which best suit his Taste, or correspond with the natural Propensity of his 
Genius. As a Scheme of this Nature is quite new in this Part of the World, 
the Author has not the Vanity to think, but that what he has proposed is 
capable of many Improvements, and therefore will be much obliged to any 
ingenious Gentlemen, who will point out it's Defects, and furnish him with 
any Amendments or Additions, which may more effectually conduce to the 
Perfection of his Plan. 

WiLUAM Rind.* 

The terms he proposed for membership were that each subscriber 
should pay twenty-seven shillings Maryland currency annually for 
the privilege of using two books at a time. Annapolis subscribers 
were allowed to borrow a folio for a month, a quarto for three 
weeks, and an octavo for one week. Subscribers living more than 
thirty miles from Annapolis could have the books for an additional 
two weeks. To prevent his subsaibers from taking an unfair advan- 
tage of him, Rind stipulated that anyone found lending the books 
belonging to the library, even at the present day a bone of conten- 
tion between librarian and reader, had to forfeit the full cost of the 
volume. A printed catalogue was to be provided at cost. He ar- 
ranged with prominent men in nearly every county to take sub- 

In an effort to interest certain prospective subscribers who did 
not take the Maryland Gazette, he sent out a circular letter enclosing 
the list of books and the proposals. Henry Callister, the Eastern 
Shore tobacco factor, received the announcement and relied; 

This day I received your letter 17th Current covering two of your gazettes, 
for which I thank you. 

Your circulating library will be of great & eternal advantage to the opening 
& inlarging the minds of rude & uncultivated understandings in a Country 
where the want of such a convenience is greatly to be regretted, which is 
Strongly set forth in the poem [sic] to your proposals. I know several Gentle- 
men to whom your scheme will be agreeable; & I shall recommend it all I can. 
The case with some of them may be as it is with me for this year: We import 
yearly, so that there is scarce any book in your present Catalogue that I have 
not either read or have now by me. But our method is very costly, & for 
the future I think we had best fall in with you, which I intend when I see 
your catalogue of a new importation. 

About 7 or 8 years ago, having a tolerable stock of books, I proposed to 
join stocks with 3 or 4 others, for a circulating library. But my plan was 
conformable to what I had seen practiced by some Booksellers in Dublin; 
that the value of the books lent should be deposited, & the parusal [sic] to 

• Maryland Gazette, September 2, 1762. 


be rated at so much pr week, what ever bulk they should be of. But I, & 
another of the parties seeing a prospect of removing our Quarters, there was 
nothing done. Your plan must oe more extensive, & I hope you will not only 
sell the more books by it, but reap due emolument from the hire of the 

In the next issue of the paper Rind asked those who intended 
subscribing to do so at their earliest convenience so that he could 
order the next consignment o£ books in time to be shipped with the 
return fleet. 

For several months after making his announcements, Rind made 
no further comments in the Gazette. But on December 9, 1762, 
probably shortly after his second consignment of books had arrived, 
he began an unusual method of advertising certain recent European 
publications which he apparently had imported in quantity from 
London. On this date, quite in the modern manner, he reprinted a 
long extract from the Critical Review comparing Rousseau's Modern 
Bloisa with Samuel Richardson's Clarissa Harlowe. After arousing 
the interest of his readers in these books, he announced that he had 
copies for sale in his bookstore. In the next issue he advertised a 
new twenty volume edition of The World Displayed; or, a Curious 
Collection of Voyages and Travels, printed in Elzevir type with col- 
ored maps and engraved prints." His originality in making use of 
extracts from the Critical Review undoubtedly helped the sale of 
his books in Annapolis. 

There were not enough subscribers to enable him to operate his 
circulating library on the large scale which his original proposals 
called for, so on January 13, 1763, he announced a modified plan to 
include only Annapolis and the district within thirty miles. He also 
decided to allow only one book to a subscriber and to permit folios 
to be borrowed for two months. These proposals were introduced 
by another essay on the library: 

As the Scheme I some Time ago offered to the Public, for Circulating a 
Library through the Province, is not likely to meet with the Success I ex- 
pected, I presume it must be owing to the too great Latitude of my Plan; 
the Communication between this and the other Parts of the Province, not 
being as yet upon so regular an Establishment, as to admit of it's being 
carried into Execution in so great an Extent, to the Satisfaction of all Parties. 
For this Reason, I am advised by my Friends to decline all Thoughts of push- 
ing it any further for the present, as premature, and to contract it within such 
Limits, that every Subscriber may, with very little Trouble, have the full 
Benefit of it. I propose therefore to con&ie Sabscripticms to Annapolis, 

" Henry Callister letterbook, III, 579. HC to Wm. Rind, 20 Sept. 1762. 
Maryland Gazette, December 16, 1762. This was, of course, the English edition. 
An Afiaeikam edttioa in eight volunaes was printed in Philadelphia in 1795-6. 



and a Circle of Thirty Miles about it I presume no one, who has the least 
Taste for Books, or any Inclination to improve his Mind, can think much of 
the Expence of one Guinea a Year, for the Use of such a valuable Collection, 
so plentifully abounding with Matter both for his Use and Amusement; nor 
can I conceive how Gentlemen, who either cannot afford, or do not choose 
to lay out large Sums of Money in Books, can fall upon a better Expedient 
for attaining the Means of Knowledge, than by some such Scheme as I have 
proposed. If my present Plan is in any Respect exceptionable, and not well 
calculated to answer the Purpose intended, I must beg Leave to repeat the 
Request I made in my former Address to the Public, That any Person would 
be so good as to point out it's Defects, and to favour me with such Improve- 
ments, as may be put it upon the best Footing for all concerned.^^ 

There vi^ere enough subscribers in Annapolis to justify opening 
the library that year. In February he announced that the catalogue 
of the collection was in press.^' A year later he asked all of his 
former subscribers to let him know at their earliest convenience 
whether they wished to continue so that he could make his plans. 
He wrote that: 

. . . the Encouragement it has hitherto received, is too inconsiderable to 
enable me to carry it on without injuring my Qrcumstances, by Expence I 
must unavoidably be at in furnishing the Library with new Books . . . 

Apparently too few subscriptions were renewed. He could not 
raise money with which to purchase the next installment of books 
from abroad, so he determined to auction off the entire library. He 
announced that beginning April 17, 1764, he would sell the books 
at his home. " The sale will begin at Five O'clock, and continue 
every Evening until they are disposed of." ^* 

Book auctions were a familiar feature of the colonial book trade 
but the great majority of the early sales were held in Boston, New 
York, and Philadelphia. Only a few were held in the Southern 
colonies, nearly all of these in Williamsburg and Charleston.^' An- 
napolis was too small a community to support a book auction and 
Rind discovered that he could not profitably dispose of his library 
in this way. 

He finally concluded that the only way to get rid of it was to 
draw up a scheme for a lottery and instead of giving cash prizes 
to make the awards in books or merchandise. On May 30, 1764, 
he published his plan in broadside form, with an apology for having 
resorted to this somewhat questionable method of selling books: 

Maryland Gazette, January 13, 1763. 
'^^ Maryland Gazette, February 10, 1763. Not in Wroth; no copy known. 
^' Maryland Gazette, April 5, 1764. 

^"^ George L. McKay, Americtm Book Auction Catalogues, 1713-1934. New York, 


For Disposing of a Large and Valuable Collection of 


The various Schemes of this Kind which have been offered to the Public, 
are, I must acknowledge, sufficient to disgust them against any new Proposal 
of that Nature: This Consideration would indeed deter me from the 
Attempt, did I not entertain the most sanguine Hopes of Success from the 
Disinterestedness of my Intentions: Tho' I must confess it is the last 
Method I would pursue, could I discover any probable Means of reimbursing 
the great Expence, I have been at, or had my former Plan, which would have 
been so beneficial to the Public in general, met with that Encouragement, 
which, I flatter myself, it deserved." 

Each of the highest prizes of fifty or one hundred dollars' worth 
of merchandise consisted of a very valuable, tho' small, Collection 
of Books." The drawing of the prizes was to be on July 21, 1764, 
but the fact that the list of the successful participants was not pub- 
lished in the newspaper of that date would seem to indicate that 
even his unusual scheme of selling books by lottery failed. 

Ten years after William Rind's abortive circulating library came 
to its unfortunate end, a similar library containing over twelve hun- 
dred volumes was flourishing m Annapolis. William Aikman, the 
proprietor, was born in Scotland in 1751. Nothing is known of his 
early career, but it is possible that as an apprentice to some colonial 
printer he learned the printing trade that he later used to such good 
advantage i% Jamaica. 

The twenty-two year old youth arrived in Annapolis in the Spring 
of 1773 with an assortment of books and stationery. He took over 
the store on West Street opposite the Court House, formerly kept 
by Mr. Colin Campbell, transforming it into a circulating library 
and bookstore. He soon assembled a collection of books for his 
circulating library, which he described as: 

. . . above 12 hundred volumes on the most useful sciences, history, poetry, 
agriculture, voyages, travels, miscellanies, plays, with all the most approved 
novels, magazines and other books of entertainment . . .^^ 

He compiled a catalogue of his library and had it printed for free 
^° The following is a description of the broadside: 

Annapolis, May 30, 1764. /A Lottery, / For Disposing of a Large and Valuable 
G)lIection of /Books, Maps, &c. / • • • [signed] William Rind. [Annapolis: Printed 
by Green & Rind, 1764.] 

Folio broadside. Leaf measures : 12^4 x 71/2 inches. Not in Wroth. MdHS (Hayden 

"Maryland Gazette, July 8, 1773. 



distribution. The only known copy of this catalogue, owned by the 
Maryland Historical Society, lacks the title page containing the 
name of the printer and the date of publication. The most recent 
publication listed by date was the Town and Country Magazine for 
1771, while written on the cover in the hand of the contemporary 
owner is the date, 6 October 1775. It was therefore issued during 
the intervening four-year period. On July 8, 1773, in an advertise- 
ment of his circulating library, Aikman mentioned for the first time 
" Catalogues both of the library and the books he has for sale to 
be had at his shop." The close similarity of the conditions of sub- 
scription to the library as published by him in the newspaper and as 
found in the catalogue is the link identifying this mutilated cata- 
logue as the one issued by William Aikman in 1773. A supplement 
to the catalogue listing recent additions was printed in 1774, but 
no copy is known. 

He was apparently planning to extend the scope of his circulating 
library to include the entire colony, as William Rind had first hoped 
to do, when he learned that Joseph Rathell, a former resident of 
Annapolis, was trying to start a library in Baltimore. One week after 
the announcement of Rathell's library was printed in the Maryland 
Journal, William Aikman wrote: 

To the Ladies and Gentlemen of the Town of Baltimore, William Aikman, 
Bookseller and Stationer, at Annapolis, having been informed that nothing 
deters a number of the friends of literature in Baltimore, from subscribing 
to his Circulating Library, but the trouble and risk they run of procuring and 
returning the books, hereby informs such as may incline tcf become sub- 
scribers, that any orders for books left with Mr. Christopher Johnston, mer- 
chant, in Baltimore, will be regularly forwarded by a padiet that goes weekly 
between Baltimore and Annapolis, and books carried for the small sum of 
one dollar each, per annum, provided a proper number of subscribers can be 
got. — ^There will Be about two hundred volumes erf all the new publications 
of merit, imported for the use of the library this fall. 

William Aikman has imported in the Molly, Captain Nicholson, from 
London, a large assortment of books, containing all the English classicks, 
miscellanies, voyages, novels, plays, &c. to be sold at the London prices for 
cash only.i* 

This proposal to provide Baltimore readers with books from the 
Annapolis circulating library and the fact that it was probably in- 
strumental in defeating Rathell's project indicates that the growing 
commercial town was still dependent upon the older community. 
After the Revolution the situation was reversed. The important 
printers, booksellers and circulating libraries were in Baltimore; and 

^' Maryland Journal and Baltimore Advertiser, October 23-30, 1773. 


when Parson Weems visited Annapolis in 1800, he could write, 

There is not a book store in the whole town." " 

A few days after making the announcement in the Baltimore 
newspaper, Aikman received a large assortment of books from 
London containing English literature, histories, essays, novels, one 
hundred and fifty plays and a number of Latin and English school 
books. He informed the subscribers of the library that: 

. . . there will be a large addition of the new publications and periodical 
papers subjoined to the catalogue upon the arrival of the first ship from 
London; and such additions will be made from time to time, as will render 
the Annapolis Library upon a footing, if not superior, to any circulating 
library on the continent.*" 

Thereafter, his advertisements were of his bookshop rather than 
of the circulating library, although there are enough references to 
it to show that it remained open during his stay in Annapolis. 

Like the other colonial booksellers, he frequently announced the 
arrival of new books from London and usually gave lists of the 
titles he had for sale. On June 23, 1774, he advertised the fol- 
lowing: ^ 

Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, 4 vol. — Sir William 
Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England. 4 vol. probably 
fifth edition. Oxford, 1773. 

New Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, 3 vol. 4to. — A new and complete 
Dictionary of arts and sciences; comprehending all the branches of 
useful knowledge. . . . By a society of Gentlemen. 

Beatie's Essay on Truth — James Beattie, An Essay on the Nature and Immu- 
tability of Truth, in opposition to Sophistry and Scepticism. The fourth 
edition. London, 1773. 

Buchan's Domestic Medicine, best London edition — William Buchan, Domes- 
tic Medicine; or, the Family Physician. [1772.'] 

Hume's Essays, 2 vols, octavo — David Hume, Essays, moral and political. 
2 vol. London, 1768. 

Lord Kaim's Elements of Criticism, 2 vols. — ^Henry Home, Lord Kames, 
Elements of criticism. Fourth editioo, with additions. 2 vol. Edinburgh, 

Ferguson's Essay on Civil Society — Adam Ferguson, An Essay on the History 

of Civil Society. Fourth edition. London, 1773. 
Dickson, On Agriculture, 2 vols, last edition — Adam Dickson, A Treatise 

on Agriculture. A new edition. 2 vol. Edinburgh, 1770. 

" Emily E. F. Skeel, Mason Locke Weems, New York, 1929, II, 150-151. 

'"Maryland Gazette, November II, 1773. 

" In this and the following lists taken from the newspapers, the titles are given 
first in the abbreviated form as they were printed. The short title is followed by the 
full author and title if known. The identification of the actual edition has been 
difScult aad in many cases is only conjectural. 



HoyJe's Games — Edmond Hoyle, Mr. Hoyle's games of whist, quadrille, 
piquet, chess and backgammon, complete. In which are contained, the 
method of playing and betting at those games, upon equal, or advan- 
tageous terms. Including the laws of the several games. 15th ed. 
London [1770?] 

An elegant edition of Rousseau's Works, 10 vols, translated from the French 
— Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Works of Jean Jacques Rousseau. Trans- 
lated from the French. 10 vol. London, 1773-4. 

Sketches from the History of Man, 2 vol. 4to. by Lord Kaim, newly pub- 
lished — Henry Home, Lord Karnes, Sketches of the History of Man. 
London, 1774. 2 vol. 

Millar on the Distinction of Ranks in Society — ^John Millar, Observations 
concerning the distinction of Ranks in Society. 2d. ed., greatly enlarged. 
London, 1773. 

Man of Feeling — Henry Mackenzie, The Man of Feeling. London, 1771. 
Man of the World, 2 vols. — Henry Mackmzie, The Man of the World. 2 

vol. London, 1773. 
A Complett Assortment of British Poets. 

Latin, Greek, and French school books, small histories for children. 

He also listed as " just published " three American editions o£ popu- 
lar eighteenth-century comedies: 

George Colman, Man of Business. Philadelphia, John Dunlap, 1774. 
Robert Hitchcock, The Macaroni. Philadelphia, William Woodhouse, 1774. 
Hugh Kelly, The School for Wives. Philadelphia, John Dunlap, 1774. 

In August, 1774, he announced as just published Josiah Quincy's 
Observations on the Boston Port-Bill, and advertised Henry Brooke's 
Juliet Grenville: or, the History of the Human Heart, of which he 
wrote: " It is recommended by the monthly reviewers as a novel 
of genius and uncommon merit, abounding with sentiments of the 
most refined kind, animated with the love of virtue." 

Later in the year he offered a new assortment to the book lovers 
of Annapolis and the surrounding country. He announced on No- 
vember 17, 1774, that he had just received: 

Lord Kame's History of Man, 2 vol. 4to, newly published — Henry Home, 

Lord Kames, Sketches of the History of Man. 2 voL London, 1774. 
Goldsmith's History of Greece, 2 voL 8vo. — Oliver Goldsmith, The Grecian 

History, from the earliest state to the death of Alexander the Great. 

2 vol. London, 1774. 
Essay on Genius by Dr. Gerard, author of the Essay on Taste — Alexander 

Gerard. An Essay on Genius. London, 1774. 
The British Poets, 20 vol. 12mo. elegantly printed on a fine writing paper — 

The British Poets. 20 vol. 12mo. 
Essay on Public Happiness, 2 vol. 8vo. 

The celebrated Dr. Gregory's Legacy to his Daughters, just published. — ^John 

Maryland Gazette, August 25, 1774. 


Gregory, A Father's Legacy to his Daughters. London, 1774. (Annapolis 
ed. printed in Philadelphia, 1775; Boston ed., 1779; many English 
editions, translated into French) . 
The Edinburgh Magazines — The Edinburgh Magazine and Review. [Edited 
by a Society of Gentlemen includii^ David Hume, Adam Smith and 
others] 1773-1776. 

Buchanan's Domestic Medicine, best London edition — ^William Buchan, 

Domestic Medicine; or, the Family Physician. London, 1774. 
A variety of the best physical authors. 

His advertisement of February 16, 1775, shows that he provided a 
large assortment of books on history as well as practical works on 
medicine and surveying: 

Hume's History of England, 8 vol. last edition — ^David Hume, The History 
of England, from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 
1688. New edition corrected. 8 vol. London, 1773- 

Macauly's History of England, 5 vol. — ^Mrs. Catherine Graham Macaulay, 
The History of England from the Accession of James I to the Elevation 
of the House of Hanover. Edit. IIL 5 vol. London, 1769-72. 

Goldsmith's History of England, 4 vol. — Oliver Goldsmith, The History oi 
England, from the earliest times to the death of George II. 4 vol. 
London, 1771. 

Smollet's History of England, with the continuation, 16 vol. — Tobias Smollett, 
A complete History of England, from the descent of Julius Caesar, to the 
Treaty of Aix la Chapelle. With the continuation in 5 vol. 16 vol. 
London, c. 1770. 

Lord Littleton's History of Henry II, 6 vol. — George Lyttleton, The History 

of the Life of King Henry the Second, and of the age in which he lived. 

6 vol. London, 1161-15. 
Entick's History of the Late War, 5 vol. — John Entick, The general History 

of the late War: containing it's rise, progress and event in Europe, Asia, 

Africa and America. 5 vol. London, c. 1772. 
Hook's Roman History, 11 vol. — ^Nathaniel Hooke, The Roman History from 

the building of Rome to the ruin of the Commonwealth. 4th ed. 1 1 vol. 

London, 1766-71. 

Bolingbroke's Philosophical Works, 5 vol. — ^Henry Saint-John Bolingbroke, 

The Philosophical Works. 5 vol. London, 1754. 
Burn's Justice of the Peace, 4 vol. last edition — ^Richard Burn, The Justice 

of the Peace and Parish Officer. 11th ed. 4 vol. London, 1770. 
Blackstone's Commentaries, 4 vol. — ^William Blackstone, Commentaries on 

the Laws of England. 6th ed. 4 vol. London, 1774. Or, possibly the 

4 vol. Philadelphia edition published by Robert Bell in 1771-72. 
Leland's History of Ireland, 4 vol. — ^Thomas Leland, The History of Ireland, 

from the invasion of Henry II. 3 vol. London, 1773. 
Hanway's Travels, 2 vol. 4to — ^Jonas Hanway, Travels through Russia into 

Persia [in The World Displayed, v. 14-15. London, c. 1770.] 
London Medical Essays, 4 vol. 
Macbridge's Practice of Physic, 4to. 

Wyldes, Loves, and Wilson's Surveying — Samuel Wyld, The Practical Sur- 
veyor, or The Art of Land-Measuring made easy. 4th ed. London, 1760. 



With John Love, The Whole Art of Surveying. 8th ed. London, 1768 
and Henry Wilson, Surveying improved; or the whole art, both in theory 
and practice, fully demonstrated . . . to which is now added, Geodoesia 
accurata. 6th ed. London, 1769- 

Turkish Spy — Letters writ by a Turkish Spy, who lived five and forty years 
in Paris . . . from 1637 to 1682. 26th ed. London, 1770. 

Connoisseur — The connoisseur, by Mr. Town, critic and censor-general, ^fe 
ed. 4 vol. London, 1774. 

Adventurer — The Adventurer . New ed. 4 vol. London, 1770. 

World— Tj&g World, by Adam Fitz-Adam. New ed. 4 vol. London, 1772. 

\A\tr—The Idler. 2 vol. London, 1761. 


His advertisement of April 13, 1775, reflects contemporary interest 
in political theory, particularly in its relation to the American 

fournal of the whole proceedings of the continental congress, with General 
Gage's letter to P. Randolph, Esq.: and the petition to the king. Phila- 
delphia, 1775. 

An essay on the constitutional power of Great Britain over the colonies. 
" Likewise a variety of the latest political pamphlets." 

On July 20, 1775, he advertised a large collection of second-hand 
books which he had purchased from the estate of a deceased clergy- 

a large assortment of books, in history, divinity, miscellanies, arts and 
sciences, poetry, physic, and a variety of classics, &c. (being partly the library 
of a clergyman lately deceased) amongst which are the following valuable 
books, Whitby's commentary on the new testament, 2 vols folio, best edition, 
80s. London price is 50s. sterling. Cruden's concordance, 4to. 54s. Saunder- 
son's algebra, 2 vols 4to, scarce, 35s. An elegant edition of Tillotson's 
sermons, 12 vols, octavo, l40s. Qark's sermons, 8 vols, octavo 80s. 
Prideaux's connections of the old and new testament, 4 vols, octavo, 40s. 
Locke on the human understanding, 2 vols, octavo, 22s6d. Smollet's His- 
tory of England, with the continuation, 16 vol. ^L 10s. . . . Montesquieu's 
Spirit of Laws, 2 vols. 15s. Hume's Essays, 2 vols. 24s. Lord Kaime's ele- 
ments of criticism, 2 vol, 24s. Beatie's essay on truth, octavo, 12s6d. Rous- 
seau's Whole Works, 10 vols. 60s. Theobald's Shakespeare, 12 vols. 60s. 
Turkish Spy, 8 vols. 45s. Heyster's surgery, 2 vols. 4to. 60s. Hanway's 
Travels, 2 vols. 4to, 10s. CuUen's materia medica, 4to 30s. Lord Littleton's 
History of Henry 2nd, 6 vols. 3£ 10s. Etc. 

In addition to selling books imported from abroad and publica- 
tions from the presses of Philadelphia and New York, William 
Aikman published at Annapolis under his own imprint at least four 
titles in the short period from December, 1774, to August, 1775. 
As far as is known, he did not operate a printing press himself, 
but, like the London booksellers, he bought copies of the books he 






0 -point out die (dvantages of fich an hiAitution,.br enlarging on die tia^pf 
influence vihldigm/ Bxis have on the uuderftanding, by fetting fonii the 

1 -coyntenance whic^h LiBR ARIIS luve received fmm the Li.'trali in alj agts, 
by urging the' delight and profit which our youth msy re.ip from having 
opportunines of ()e«iiiig4rc<}ucntly, i:nder the eye of their parents and 

■friends, the beft authors, er, indeed, to txpatiate at all, .in favour of a wcll-eonduacd 
CiKcuLATiNC LiMAXV, wouM, to a|>cople much lefs ii:telligent than the inhabi* 
tants of thiaj)lace, highly unneeelFar^ « the inteiRiunol proprietor tiKrefore, after ot>- 
fervlng that Libramec have became objeAs ef attention in every polite part of 
^mtrira, will only infom the Public, that, on bemg /avowed wh a fuitaUe number 
of yearly fubftriber;, on the conditions undermentioned, he will immediately fumifli *. 
CtlltClion ef Boois, not lefs than eight handrcd volumes, by the V^tt authort, wHk |iriiilc4 
CMilc^ues thereof, confining of 

Cleffia, tthtioric, JJ-.-tnturri, 

m/iory, Matttmatici, Mifctllmiei, 

Ftetrj,- JJIromm); Kn'tb, 

Ph^t Coeiny, Mrmeiri, 

Agriculture, ft^^aga^ Pamfblttt, 

Legic, ^rsvtli, E//4iys, 

And every other WOK K of Mfit, Eruii'tiea and tr/u Huimur. TT.e CoiircTWV to 
fee occafionally incrcafcd with the ncweft Publ>catlon» from LonJm, &c. 

As the advantages of a Library need not be limited^ to the place where it is c(labli(hed, 
ferfons in the country a^ijacent, becoming fubicribers, as is cuiWinary, may, with great 
CfmvcBience. be Aipplied with Books. 

iff. Each fubfcriber lo pay four dollars per year, in manner fbUowing, viz. one dolkir 
upon their taking out the liril book, alter the eftalilMhinent of the Library, of which 
proper nonce wilTte given ; one dollar, fix months after ; another dollar, nine months 
after i and the laft dollar, at the expiration of the year. 

sd. SubfcrihCTS in town, to ha»-c the privilege <j{ taking books whenever ihey pleafe, 
'One only at • time. 

3d. Subfcribers at any diftaiKC from Town, to have the additional privilege of taking 
two hooks at once. 

Other particulars to be conmunicated when the ntaloguct are printed. 

At the fealbn is advancing when the min'l may, with conveoieiKre, iir gratified an4 
fmproved with tlic rational entertainment of reading, thole Ocntlemen andCadiet 
^ifpafed to promote this much wiHitd for inAitution, are rcqucftedto befpcedy in feni!- 
Jng their names, as fubfcribcrs, to the Ciffee-Hfu/t, the fcunraln-inr, and the Prinimi^- 
^ffict, *here fubfcription papers for the purpofe of entering them are kept, that the 
intentional proprietor -may be tlic foontr enabled to |voviiic an ample colle^lion of books. 
For the convenience of Gentlemen and Ladies of literary tsfte and difcernment in the 
■country adjacent, fubfcribcrs names will atfo be lak;n in at Mr. David Armflnngi, in 
the Fircft, at Mr. William M'Knigk'i Tavern, and at Mr. 'Ih-ma Sickcts's, at Elk- 
m^e, at which places alfcr, propofals at l«({c majr be had gratis. • 


from the broadside in Mtetifimid SMorical Kftiwv 



published at wholesale prices from the printer with a special printed 
title page containing the imprint, "' Printed for William Aikman, 
Bookseller and Stationer, at Annapolis." 

In the order of their publication, the books bearing his name in 
the imprint are as follows: 

1. Ha^idcesworth, John. A ] New Voyage, | Round the World, | 
In the Years | 1768, 1769, 1770 and 1771; | Undertaken by 
Order of his present Majesty, | Performed By | Captain 
James Cook, In the Ship Endeavour, | ... In two Volumes: [ 
. . . New- York: | Printed for William Aikman, Bookseller and 
Stationer, | at Annapolis, 1774. 

Printed by James Rivin^ton and containing plate by Paul Revere. The New York 
edition, published by subscription, was an outright piracy of the English edition 
sold for three guineas. Rivington proposed to publish an American edition on 
March 16, 1774, " copied line after line from the London Edition " for one 
dollar and a half. He allowed booksellers a twenty percent discount and supplied 
it to them either in sheets, in paper covers or bound in leather. He also offered 
to put their name on the title page. Aikman's name was among the booksellers 
who received subsaiptions to the New York edition but there were only three 
names in the list of subscribers from Maryland. The ambitious Maryland 
bookseller had arranged with Rivington to purchase copies wholesale with his 
name on the title page and to sell them to the Maryland subscribers as well as 
his regular customers. On December 1, 1774, it was announced in the Maryland 
Gazette as " This day is published, by William Aikman . . ." The Annapolis 
edition was sold for 16 shillings. He repeated the announcement on February 
23, 1775. Copy of Vol. 11 at John Carter Brown Library. 

2. Gregory, John. A | Father's Legacy | To His | Daughters. 
By The Late | Dr. Gregory, | Of Edinburgh. | [double rule] 
London, Printed: | Philadelphia: | Re-printed" for William 
Aikman | In Annapolis. | [rule] | M, DCC, LXXV. 

This was printed in Philadelphia by John Dunlap. It was announced as pub- 
lished on February 16, 1775, in the Maryland Gazette, copies of the trade edition 
bound and gilded for four shillings and copies of a special edition thrown 
off on a superfine writing paper, elegantly bound and gilt " for five shillings 
six pence. Aikman stated that five thousand copies of the first London edition 
were sold in three weeks. Copy at Maryland Historical Society and Library of 

3. [Stanhope, Philip Dormer. Lord Chesterfield's Letters to his Son . . . 
in four handsome volumes. New- York: Printed for William Aikman, 
Bookseller and Stationer, at Annapolis, 1775.] 

This was printed in New York by John Rivington and Hugh Gaine in 1775 
from the second London edition. See Sidney L. Gulick, Jr., "A Chesterfield 
Bibliography to 1800," Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, XXIX 
(1935) No. 14. The New York edition was published in July and Aikman 
announced his edition on August 17, 1775. No copy known. 

4. [Bartlet, J. The Gentleman Farrier's Repository . . . Philadelphia: 
Printed by Joseph Cruikshank for William Aikman, 1775.] 

Announced in the Maryland Gazette, August 24, 1775, This day is published 
for, and to be sold by . . ." William Aikman. The first part contained ten 
minutes's advice to every gentleman planning to purchase a horse and the second 
part told how to treat the horse after it was purchased. No copy of Annapolis 
editioB known. 


All of Aikman's publications were piracies from the English edi- 
tions, but neither he nor the New York and Philadelphia printers 
responsible, seem to have felt at all guilty about publishing them. 
Robert Bell, one of the earliest American publishers to pirate Eng- 
lish editions, claimed that he was justified in doing so because it 
enabled American readers to purchase books which otherwise, be- 
cause of their expense, would be beyond their reach. In his address 
to the subscribers of the Philadelphia edition of William Robert- 
son's History of the Reign of Charles the Fifth (1770), he con- 
gratulated them on their making possible the publication of this 
American edition " at a price so moderate, that the Man of the 
Woods, as well as the Man of the Court, may now solace himself 
with Sentimental Delight." He wrote: 

. . . some inimical incendiaries, who daily foster the exiguity of their 
understandings, by barricading their faculties in the vile and almost impreg- 
nable castle of ignorance, exotics to the native rights of American Freedom, 
have insinuated, that this Edition is an infraction on the monopoly of literary 
property in Great-Britain . . 

He quoted Blackstone to show that America was not necessarily 
governed by English laws and then, as an additional argument, 
claimed that if the Dublin booksellers could pirate English editions, 
there was no legal reason why the American publishers could not 
do the same. He added that the English copyright law does not 
reach into a country governed by an assembly " until they become 
so corrupted, as to barter away the birth-rights of the people. . . ." 
Although Rivington, the New York printer, was a staunch loyalist, 
he had no hesitancy in reprinting English editions or importing in 
wholesale lots the piracies of Dublin booksellers.^* Even Benjamin 
Franklin, a close friend and correspondent of William Strahan, the 
prominent London bookseller who held the copyright to many of 
the pirated books, felt that book piracies were justified when they 
resulted in lowering the price of the volume. This early American 
attitude toward copyright is an interesting contrast to the general 
recognition today, except among certain American printers, of the 
overwhelming advantages of international copyright legislation. 

Citizens of Armapolis probably found Aikman's bookshop and 
circulating library an attractive place in which to gather. In addi- 
tion to the books, he sold what he termed " wet goods," which, 

*• William Robertson, History of the Reign of Charles V, 111, p. [xx-xxv.] 
"Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, LXI (1928), 255-256, 269. Riving- 
ton offered the cheap Irish editions to Henry Knox at the st^estion of Col. Olives, 
Mr. Quincy and Mr. Williams, of Bostcm, who saw the piracies in Rivington's home. 



according to his advertisements, consisted of a few gross of " Old 
Port Wine of the best quality," London porter, ale and Qie^ire 

Aikman was not in sympathy with the course that political events 
were taking in Annapolis. When certain radical citizens assembled 
in June, 1774, and by a narrow margin passed a series of non-inter- 
course resolutions, including one forbidding lawyers to bring suit 
for the recovery of debts owing to English merchants, he joined a 
group of leading citizens in signing a public protest.^^ Like many 
of his fellow loyalists, he must have felt that the trouble would 
soon blow over. But as the tension increased in Annapolis and as 
the advertisements of departing loyalists filled the columns of the 
Maryland Gazette, he found that he had to make the momentous 
decision. On August 15, 1775, he announced: 

As I intend for the West Indies in 20 days from this date, I am obliged 

to request of those who are indebted to me, that they will forthwith discharge 
their respective accounts; and to desire those to whom I am indebted to call 
up<Mi me for payment.^' 

In his next and last advertisement he said he was planning to leave 
September fourth. He kept his word, for when the postmaster of 
Aiinapolis sorted out the dead letters in his office in the Spring of 
the following year, he found three addressed to William Aikman, 


Aikman arrived in Jamaica on October 21, 1775, and opened a 
stationery and bookstore. A few years later he went into partner- 
ship with David Douglas, better known through his connection 
with the Old American Company, perhaps the most active colonial 
tiieatrical company, and on May 1, 1779, they started the Jamaica 
Mercury and Kingston Weekly Advertiser, which after April, 1780, 
appeared under the more familiar title, the Royal Gazette. It was 
a strange quirk of fortune which brought the manager of the theatri- 
cal company which had for several years entertained citizens of 
the middle and southern colonies into partnership with the An- 
napolis bookseller. Aikman died in 1784, and his interests were 
taken over by Alexander Aikman, probably his brother, who had 
been forced to leave his printing business in Charleston because of 
his loyalist views.*' 

Brief reference has already been made to an effort to begin a 

'^^ Maryland Gazette, June 2, 1774. 
"'Maryland Gazette, August 17, 1775. 

"Frank Cundall, "The Press and Printers of JtaHMtka PjSot to 1820," Preetedimgs 
oj the American Antiquarian Society (1916). 


circulating library in Baltimore. Joseph Rathell, who proposed the 
scheme, had lived for a time in Philadelphia; his name is listed 
among the Philadelphia subscribers in Robert Bell's edition of Rob- 
ertson's History of Charles V (1770) as a teacher of the English 
language. He taught school in Annapolis for a short time, but ap- 
parently felt that greater opportunity for advancement would be 
found in Baltimore. There was an increasing demand for schools 
and bookstores in this rapidly growing commercial center. Not 
long before Rathell's arrival, William Goddard began the first local 
newspaper and the town was becoming conscious of its cultural 
limitations. A subscriber of the Maryland Journal, in praising the 
merits of a weekly newspaper, suggested that Goddard print ex- 
cerpts from English books which could be read aloud to children: 

. . . what a pleasing occupation would it be for a fond parent, when he 
meets in a news-paper a few well-written lines on any improving subject to 
summon his little ones into his presence, and, with the hope of reward, 
stimulate them to an early ambition of excelling each other in reading and 
explaining such easy passages, as appear most capable of drawing their atten- 
tion, and leaving a lasting impression on their tender minds: by such gently 
persuasive methods they would insensibly become habituated to reading and 
to the love of books, and, by degrees, change their puerile amusements for 
the noble studies which cultivate the manners and improve the under- 

Rathell proposed to give public readings and to lecture several 
evenings a week. Doubtless these were well attended, for public 
lectures are known to have been popular in Baltimore after the 

Mr. Rathell proposes, for two or three evenings the ensuing winter, to 
read, in public, a few pieces from the most eminent English authors, and to 
deliver a lecture on the necessity, advantage, beauty, and propriety of a just 
vocal expression, wherein the use and elegance of accent, quantity, emphasis, 
and cadence, will be illustrated, and of wbidi timely notice will be given to 
the public.28 

Later he conducted a night school for boys who wanted a knowl- 
edge of practical mathematics.'* 

On October 16, 1773, he announced that he was planning to start 
a circulating library ; a broadside containing the proposals was issued 
a week later.^^ The terms of membership in his library differed only 
slightly ttosn those proposed by William Rind and William Aikman. 

Maryland Journal, October 16-23, 1773. 
"Maryland Journal, August 28, 1773. 
^"Maryland Journal, January 8-20, 1774. 

" L. C. Wroth, History of Printing in Colonial Maryland, No. 322. 



T H J-: . 


O R, 


THE loVeof Knowiedoe, as the firft and beft. 
Needs not perfuafioii to fceurc the bread ; 
The willing ioul the plcafing inlUiencc o^^ns, 
The fwcets of learning for its toil stones. 
When Liters til ft illum'tl the darkt n'J mind, 
And ihaiinM the heart, and taught the liigEot blind, 
SciENCK and Tastb the wreaths of magic /|>rcad, 
And Sense improving by their bands w»s led. 

ProgrcfTivc ftUU as Oenius dar'd^ellsy, 
Or art improve the animating ky; 
The bold Precept o;s of the rifinga^rr, 
I ho PRESS, the PULPIT, and the .uoral STACE, 
£eftow'd their labours with eniiob'ling »icw. 
As virtue's fons the Icenes of virtue drew. 

Hcfe all their fwcets, as flow'rs in prdcnsgro*, 
{ For mental flow'rs in blooms etcrnirijlow,) 
iiilpluy their bright yariety, to thaim 
■ J he youth to virtue, «n<l feeiire from harm : 
'I hus l)<)oks o'treomu the ravuors of tiiDc, 
Ami make il'i live thro',i);;Ii evVy age and climr; 
J'biis ClRKECr niul K^J^l^ «i. vinv iri this l.ite agC, 
Ai'.il talk witli C/i:»/\R </e) the filriit pa^c J 
I.vcORr.03, SoeRAiFo, uikI Ca i It te.o, 
AhiI firaflilcfr «ortli!es of olr| timts mc »icw— 
Kaptby the hard, or butliM in pitv's te ars, 
AVc I'onr with Oo<li tiiiimpiiant o tr tlie tpheics. 

Here cv'ry nfeful monitor is plae'd. 
To mend the heart or regulate the tallc ; 
From HoMm high, to whom fwcct charms beloilg. 
To liickleCs CiiAi tfrton's enchanting fi-ng; 
The fire of .iiiakkspe.ixe, Milton's (hjin iliiinc, 
V'ai.i.f.u's foft fimg, and TiioM^o^'s dcathlels line*— 
Wlule'cr the sntients or ihc Hioi!rrnsdrevv, 
V'hntc'erls CUKIOl'S, (JKKAl or UK AND, or NEW, 
Are lieie rolleOtd, fitlorev'ry talli , 
'I'o fi>rni the mental never-cloying leaft, 

^.tliitMit, AfmJj I, 1787. 






of t 



of f 



be I 

iii t 

1 ' 













if I 



His report, in November, that he had received a number of sub- 
scriptions but that there were still not enough to enable him to begin 
the library, sounds familiar. It is very likely that Aikman's offer to 
make his library available to the citizens of Baltimore, published 
on the same day as Rathell's proposals, and undoubtedly in order 
to forestall him, seriously undermined the plan for a circulating 
library in Baltimore. At any rate, Rathell could not get enough 
subscribers, and he gave up the project. Fortunately, unlike Rind, 
he had not bought the books in advaiKe and therefore did not have 
his money tied up in an unprofitable investment. 

The first successful circulating library in Baltimore was begun 
during the Revolution, and by 1790, at least three of them had been 
established.'^ In 1787, a poem was published in a Baltimore news- 
paper which is reproduced here because it shows the contemporary 
interest in circulating libraries.** 

Lotteries were a familiar method of raising money for roads, 

bridges, schools, churches and other charitable purposes during the 
colonial period and as late as the middle of the nineteenth century 
when they were forbidden by the state legislatures. Individuals 
took advantage of the gambling instinct inherent in their fellow 
men by conducting private lotteries for their own benefit. Frequently 
prizes were given in merchandise so, strictly speaking, they were 
raffles rather than lotteries, though apparently the colonists did not 
bother about this little distinction in terminology. William Rind's 
attempt to dispose of his unprofitable circulating library by this 
method has already been mentioned. In several other lotteries in 
colonial Maryland, books were offered as prizes. On May 30, 1765, 
Thomas Sparrow, the first Maryland engraver and silversmith, an- 
nounced " the Maryland Lottery," designed to dispose of land, 
silverplate, and a library which was described in the advertisement: 

Also a Library of Books, selected from the best Authors, viz. Swift's 
Works, Pope's, Addison's, Shakespeare's Butler's Johnson's, Hooke's Smol- 
lett's, Congreve's, Gay's, Rowe's, Otway's and Steele's works; Chamber's 
Dicctionary of Arts and Sciences, Owen's Ditto, Blaives Lex Mercatoria; 
Statutes at large, 8 vols. Quarto, a new Edition; McKnight's Harmony of 
the Gospels; Leland's Works; Parliamentary History of Great Britain, 24 
vols; a general History of the World, in 40 vols; Lady Montague's cele- 
brated Letters and Travels; Entick's History of all the 'Transactions of the 
late War; Smollett's, Hume's, Rapin's and Tindal's Histories of England; 

"J. T. Wheeler, Maryland Press, 1777-1790, partially unpublished master's thesis, 
pp. 114-119. 

"MaryUnd Gazette or the Baltimore Advertiser, March 6, 1787. 



and a very great variety of Boolcs and other Articles, extreamly useful and 

Sparrow was unable to interest his neighbors in buying lottery 
tickets. But a year later, James Rivington, of Philadelphia, signed 
the advertisement and listed lottery agents in Boston, New York, 
Philadelphia, Chestertown, Georgetown and Williamsburg. Per- 
haps, under the direction of this able promoter, who subsequently 
became one of the leading booksellers and publishers in the colonies, 
the Maryland lottery was a success.'* 

Another lottery, about which even less is known, was advertised 
in the Annapolis newspaper. 

The Managers of the Bohemia Library Lottery hereby give Notice, That 
they will certainly Draw the same, at Caecil County Court-House, on Mon- 
day the 15th of August next.^* 

The drawing was held as announced, and the winning numbers 
were printed in the Maryland Gazette on July 26, 1764. 

Merchants and factors in the colony partially supplied the de- 
mand for books which in the northern colonies would have been 
taken care of by booksellers in the urban centers. In making an 
inventory of the goods belonging to Foster Cunliffe & Sons in the 
store at Oxford in 1765, Henry Callister listed the following books: 

11 plain bibles 1 Phradras's Fables 

7 gilt ditto 4 nomen Qatura [?] 

1 large prayer book 1 sentinte [?] 
5 plain common prayer books 33 horn bodes 

10 Oxford Testaments 9 gilt primmers 

4 Introductions to the Latt. Tongue 3 Bailey's dictionaries 

2 Latin Testaments 2 Atkinson's Epitome 
14 psalters 3 Crocker's Arithmeteck 
29 Chapman's books 1 Ovids metamorp 

8 Latin Books 1 Erasmus 

7 ditto 3 mariners Compass's rectify 

3 ditto 1 Mariners Callender*' 

Samuel Dorsey, Junior, proprietor of a general store at Elkridge 
Landing, like several other Maryland merchants, printed annually a 
list of new merchandise recently received from Europe. Books were 
scanetimes mentioned in these advertisements: 

'* Maryland Gazette or the Baltimore Advertiser, March 6, 1787. 
°° See Victor Hugo Paltsits's excellent biographical sketch of him in the Dictionary 
of American Biography, ii, 637-638. 
Maryland Gazette, July 28, 1763. 
"Henry Qllister letteitook. 11, 233. Imvostory 12 October 1756. 


. . . Spelling Books, and small Books for Children, Plays, single Sermons, 
Baldwin's Daily Journal, Lady's Memorandum Book, Chapman Bodes, Bibles, 
and Testaments . . 

The inventory o£ Malcom Adams, an owner of a general store in 
Mtknore Town in 1767, shows that books were being sold there 
at an early date: 

18 Quarto Bibels 

1 fine do 
98 common d" 

6 Bibels with Notes 

1 fine do 2 vol 

1 d° all gilt 

4 Books of Grays Works 
6 do Confessions of Faith 
1 Prideaux Connections 4 vol 

3 Mairs Bookkeeping 
1 Knox's History 

1 Watsons Body of Divinity 

1 Bostons Sermons in 3 vol 

2 Catechisms Explained 

1 Rollins ancient History 10 Vol 

4 Harveys Sermons 

3 Dos Dialogues 2 vol each 
6 Dos Meditations 

2 Theron & Haspato 2 vol 
2 Crookhanks History 2 vol 

2 Allans Works 2 vols 

3 Rutherfords Letters 

2 Pattens Navigation 

3 Wise's Companion 

1 Boyers French Grammer 
3 Watts Psalms 

5 Montagues Letters 

Flavels Works in Fol 
Ambrose looking to Jesus 
prima &c 
Ready Reckoner 

1 Dodrids Rise & prepress 
d° on Religion 
Rowes Letters 
Sherlocks on Death 
Psalm Books 

do20'> & 3 Common Historys 

Gospel Sonnets 

Memories of Elizabeth Cavins 
Do of Thos Halliburton 
Guthries Tryals 
Wilsons Balm of Gilliad 
Wilsons Catichisms Explain' d 
doz" & 3 do on the Sacrament 
Durhams Riches of Christ 
4 smiths on Judgment 

2 setts School Books 
1 pair fine Bibles 

Spectator 7 vol. 
Addisons Evidence 
Gospel Mystery 
Charles 12th 




The subscription list of Robert Bell's edition of Robertson's 
History of Charles V contains eighty-five Maryland names out of a 
total of five hundred listed. Merchants who sold books in their 
stores can readily be identified because Bell entered opposite their 
name the number of copies they desired: 

Alexander Hamilton, Merchant, of Piscataway, 12 sets 
Hugh Lennox, Merchant, of Newton, Chester, 12 sets 
James M'Beth, Merchant, of Baltimore, 24 sets 
Thomas Williams, and Co., Merchants, of Annapolis, 24 sets. 

The order books of the Annapolis firm of Wallace, Davidson and 

^'Maryland Gazette, May 30, 1765. 

" Baltimore County Inventories. Liber H. 29 August 1767. 



Johnson from 1771 to 1775 reveal the extent of the book importa- 
tions handled by Maryland merchants. They owned a retail store 
in Annapolis and acted as agents in distributing iron, wheat and 
lumber produced in Maryland. At first they avoided the tobacco 
trade because they felt that it was too speculative but later they 
accepted consignments for sale in London. Two of the firm re- 
mained in Maryland, and Joshua Johnson, the third, opened an 
office in London where he could sell the raw materials received 
from the colony and provide his partners and his Maryland cor- 
respondents with the goods they desired. The ledgers in which he 
entered the orders from the colony have been preserved and remain 
a valuable record of goods imported at the close of the colonial 

The first large consignment of books to his partners was sent on 
April 25, 1771, and contained: 

Nineon de Lendo's Letters, 2 Volumes 
Saxbys Book of Rates 

1 Sett of Chrsyall with they [sic] key 
Tom Jones 4 Volutns 

Tessot on the Health 

2 do2 the Newest Plays now acted at home to cost 6/ pr doz. ■ 
Likewise the following Plays. 

Falce Delicacy ■ . 

Clandestine Marriage 

Desert Island 

Consious Lovers 

Susspicious Husband 

Provoked Husband 

Love in a Village 

The Guardian 


The Art of Cookery made plain & easy by a Lady the newest Edition 
The Vanity of Human Wishes 

The Family devotion by the Author of the System of Divinity 
The Fool of Quality if ther is 5 Volums if not dont send 'em 
A commentary "on Archbishop Seekers Letters to Lord Walpole concern- 
ing the e^a^lidiMeat of -Bishop's in America. Printed by DiUy in the 

Atkin's Reports 3 Volums 
Wilsons do 2 do bound together 
Burns Eclesiastical Law 4 or 5 small Books' 
5 th Volum of Bacons Abridgement 

Blackstons Comutnentaries 4' Volums . 
3d Volum of Burrow^ Reports ,. 

" Wallace, Davidson & Johnson Order Book I, 2?. 25 April 1771. Hall of Records, 


In November the following books were ordered: 

2 Fennings Dictionaries 2 Setts Fool Quality 

2 Bailies ditto 1 Sett Spectator 

2 dyches ditto 1 Sett Guardian 
1 do2 Fennings Spelling Books 1 Sett Tatler 

1 doz Dyches ditto 1 Sett Tirkish Spy 

4 doz small Histories 6 neat Bibles 

1 doz small red & Green Morocco 6 common Bibles 

Gilt Prayer Books 1 Sett Enticks late "War 

3 Doctor Tissot on Health 1 Sett dodsleys Poems 

2 Setts Tom Jones 1 Sett Popes Homer 

2 Setts crysall 1 Sett Shakespears Works 

2 Setts R. Randum 4 doz Plays sorted some of the 
2 Setts Peregrine Pidde Newest 

1 Saxbys book of Rates *i 

In March, 1772, he was asked to send a consignment of books 
containing several bibliograjdiical tools hdpfal in collecting a 
private library: 

Chronica Juridicialia Eddition 8vo printed 1739 if continued down send 

it, or a latter Eddition if any 
Werralls last Bibliotheca Legum 

Directions for a proper Choice of Authors to form a Library with a List 

of proper Books on the several subjects printed in 1766. 
A Compleat Alphabetical Catalogue of Modern Books with the prices 

aiSxed printed in 1766 with the Apjm&'s sisce published to the 

present Time , 
A Catalogue of Modern Books with the different Edditions Dates & Prices 

as Worralls 

Bibliotheca Legum if any in print is also desired to be sent 
Hanways Account of the Hospital for foundlings 8vo 
The above are to be had of Mr. John Whiston Book Seller in Fleet street 
Add to the above a small collection of any new Entertaining Novels & 

Send 10 or 20 Doz of old Magazines if to be had about 1/ pr doz 
doz Glasses Cookery 

1 of the latest Book of Rates 

Amongst the assortment of Books let there be the following 

3 Setts Humphry Clinker 

6 Young mans Companion 
Prior & Gays Poems 3 of each 
2 new Bath Guides 
2 Footes Works 

1 Precepter 

2 Lady M. W. Montagues Poems 

2 Trisham Shandy 5 Vols 

1 Sh^espear's Works by Johnson 

Widkce, Davidson & Johnson Order Bo<A I, 58-59. 26 November 1771. 



1 Rollins Belles Lettres 

3 Builders Jewel London Architect. 6 Bench Mates 
1 Andrew Paladio.*^ 

In October, 1772, Richard Tilghman Earle, probably a store- 
keeper, ordered an assortment of books: 

3 Lissots on Health with Qdogans 

2 large House Bibles 
6 School do 

1 do2 Testaments 

2 do2 Psalters 

2 do2 gilt Primmers 

2 doz horn Books 

8 Common Prayer Books 

4 very good do 

2 doz Dilworths Spelling Books 

2 doz entertaining & instructive 
Books for Qiildren 

3 Johnsons I^ctionar^ 

4 Gazetteers 

1 doz Tom Jones 

1 doz Sn. Charles Grandison — 
abridged for Children 

2 doz Chap Books 
2 Setts Preceptor 

Treatise on the Gout 

1 Spectator 8 Volumes 

2 Littletons Dialogues 
1 Hirds Dialogues 

1 Vicar of Wakefield 

2 Mairs Book Keeping 

1 Book of Rates by a Late Author 
shewing the Duties, Drawbacks 
& Debentures &c on Goods in & 

Feelings of the Heart to be ex- 

1 Sett of the Art of Fencing famili- 
arized or a new Treatise on the 
Art of Sword play by Mr. 

Johnson received several orders from Maryland merchants who 
wanted to stock their stores witii bool»: 



doz Dyches Spelling books 

doz Dilworts do 

doz Testaments 

doz Bibles 

doz large Family do 

doz Common prayer books 

[paper and bound bodks] 

doz horn books 

doz Gilt Primmers 

[ink Powder] 

4 doz Small histories Sorted 

1/2 doz Bailey's Dictionaries 
Statues at Large by Owen Ruffhead 
Burrows Reports 

Bacons Abridgement of the Common 

Lord Raymonds Reports 
Strange's Reports All in English 

"William Lux ordered a coUecticm of parliamentary debates in 

April, 1773. 

Debates in the House of Lords 1660 to 1742 in 8 Vols in 8vo Published 

by Chandler Cost new £2:8 
Debates in the House of Common, 1660 a 1742. 14 Vols do Published 

Chandler ditto £4:4 
Debates in the House of Common, 1620 1621 2 Vols Published by 

Gray £10 

" Wallace, Davidson & Johnson Order Book I, 78-79. 20 March 1772. 
"Wallace, Davidson & Johnson I, 114-113. Richard Tilghman Eatle 21 Oct. 1772. 
" Wallace, Davidson & Johnson Order Book II, unpaged. Buchanan & G>wen [1773L 


If the debates are continued to the present time, send them 
Montesquiu's Spirit of Laws 

Universal Magazine from 1 January 1763 to December 1772 bound & 

Junius Letters 

Directions for a proper Choice ol A^iK>rs to form a Library Printed for 

I Whiston 1766 « 

Music was a popular pastime for Marylanders and the inventories 
of estates frequently mention violins, jews harps and other instru- 
ments. Johnson received an order for an assortment of musical 
instruments and books in 1773: 

Weidmans second Setts of German Flute Concerts, Two Setts of a Single 
Concerto for the German Flute by Seignior Romenio. Two Setts of a 
Single Concerto for the German Flute by Mr Wendling. Two Setts 
Bowerdeinis Trios for 3 German Flutes. 

The Overture in 8 Parts. In Artaxerxses, The five first Numbers of the 
Monthly Military Concertos. 

Two of Tansours New Musical Grammers, one C Clavinet of Colliers 

[several quires of music paper bound up in oblong folios] 
Two Setts of Apollos Cabinet or the Muses Delight An Accourate Col- 
lection of EngUsh & Italian Songs, Cantalas & Duetts set to Musick 
for the Harpsicord, Violin German Flute &c with Twelve Duettos for 
two French Horns Composed by Mr Charles and Instructions for the 
Voice, Violin Harpsicorde or Spinet German Flute Common flute Haut- 
boy French Horn Bason and Bass- Violin 
also A Compleat Musical Dictionary and Several Hundred English, Irish 
and Scotch Songs witiN)at M^ostck.^ 

In 1774, he received personal orders for books from Alexander 
Hanson and Nathaniel Ramsey and was particularly requested to 
purchase them second-hand if possible. 

Books for Alexn. Hanson 

Hawkins's Pleas of the Qown The Art & Science of Pleading 

Second Hand Books will be far most acceptable provided they be Sound & 
not of the oldest & Obslete Editions, but if such are not Conveniently to be 
Mr Johnson is desired to Purchase them new 


Harris's Practice in Chancery 
Trials at Nisi Prices 
Gilberts Practice in Coimnon Pleas 
Gilbert on Replevins 
Heaths Maxims 
Doctor & Student 

Stranges Reports 
Crookes Reports 
Montesquieses Spirit of Laws 
Lock on Government 
Beallys Essay on Truth 
Ferguson on Civil Society 

Wallace, Davidson & Johnson Order Book I, 131. Wiliam Lux 2 April 1773. 
W^Htc4 Bl»i^»eA-A: J^^aoa CM&r Book I, 154. 24 May 1773. 



For Nathl. Ramsey 

Burrows reports 3 Vol folio Theory of Evidence any Edition 

Willsons reports any Edition English Pleader do 

Baron Gilberts Law of Evidence 2d Edition 1760 or a later Edition if to 

be had 

Purchase these as the former at Second hmd if you can.*^ 

Greenberry Chaney, a resident of Annapolis, asked him to send 
a set of Theobald's Shakespeare, Swift's Works and the Spectator 
and particularly requested that they be on " good paper & neatly 

Johnson also purchased paper, ink and type for the local printing 
shop which Anne Catherine Green was successfully operating with 
the aid of her sons. 

Printing Utencils.*' 

10 lbs Bourgeois thick spaces ) ^ i 

5 lbs Bourgeois M Quadrants ) o* Cadon. 

He also furnished her with " two or three Magazines & a Parcel 
of the Newest Papers, to be sent her by every opportunity that 
offers." ^ From these she probably culled the information which 
filled her " Foreign News " colunbis. - 

There was a bookseller at Georgetown in Kent County in 1762, 
but how long he remained is not known. In a letter to Mr. Car- 
michael, father of William Carmichael, the American diplomat, 
Henry Callister suggested that tiiey go.up to Georgetown to look 
over his stock: 

I want to keep your Charron [Pierre. Oiarron, Of Wisdom] a little longer; 
I have not yet gone through. I know not whether it may not cost you & me 
some money to have a book seller so near us. I think the best way is for 
you to call here some fair day, that we may go together the next momnig 
to George town & take a full view of the shop.°^ 

Most of the book users on the Eastern Shore lived close enough 
so that a journey of a day or two on horse would enable them to 
visit the Philadelphia book-market. Under these circumstances the 
local bookseller probably found it difficult to make a living. Cal- 
lister' s first thought when he wanted to get a copy of the treaty 

" Wallace, Davidson & Johnson Order Book II, unpaged. WD&J [nd. c. 1774.] 
" Wallace, Davidson & ^hnson Order Book I, 167. 14 October 1773 GreetAerty 


" Wallace, Davidson & Johnson Order Book I, 68, 19 June 1772. 

^ Wallace, Davidson & Johnson Order Book I, 45. 4 August 1771. 

" Hairy Callister l«tteik)ok. III, 508. HC »o Mt. Cariakhall, 6 M«dh 1762. 


made with the Indians of the Six Nations, at Lancaster in June 
1744, was to send to Philadelphia for it. 

Another evidence of the dose contact with Philadelphia is the 
fact that many inhabitants of the Eastern Shore and some on the 
Western Shore of Maryland subscribed to the Pennsylvania Gazette. 
When Franklin visited the colony in 1754, he appointed Thomas 
Ringold, of Chester Town, and William Young, of Joppa, his 
agents to collect the annual subscriptions."^ Philip Hughes, rector 
of Coventry Parish in Somerset County on the Eastern Shore, ordered 
his books of William Bradford, the Philadelphia printer and book- 

I should be obliged to you to forward any new Books or Productions of 
Genius to me, such as Pamphlets &c & you shall be payd with thanks. 

The letterbooks of Henry Callister, Stephen Bordley, Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton, show that many of the books owned by Mary- 
landers were imported directly from London in exchange for the 
annual tobacco shipment. This direct trade with London book- 
sellers gradually decreased as the tobacco business became less im- 
portant in the economic life of Maryland. The resulting develop- 
ment of bookstores and circulating libraries in Baltimore and the 
other population centers of Maryland is an important phase of the 
cultural history of the state whidi deserves investigation. 

" George S. Eddy, Account Books Kept by Benjamin Franklin, New York, 1929, 
I^. 110-111, 125-126. 

" Philip Hughes to Wm. Bradford, 26 September 1768. In Wm. H. Comer papers 
«t Mui^d Histedad Society. 


By Robinson C. Watters 

In my possession is a Baltimore City Directory for 1838 and also 
a well preserved set of Audubon's Birds of America, which were in 
the process of completion at the same period. The former is small 
with a brown muslin cover, the paper of fair quality and the print- 
ing very good considering the kind of hand press then used. The 
population including whites and blacks, the latter both free and 
slave, amounted to about one-tenth of what the census gives today, 
while Mr. R. J. Matchett, the painstaking editor and compiler of this 
compact little volume, has stated that it is the eighth Director the 
city so far has had. Known as Matchett's Baltimore Director, this 
was published by him at the northeast corner of Gay and Water 
streets, 1837-1838. At that time Samuel Smith was Mayor, William 
Grason, Governor of Maryland, and Martin Van Buren, President 
of the United States.^ 

On white paper 4 inches by 6% inches, the closely arranged names 
and addresses of inhabitants are preceded by emerald green and 
pumpkin yellow pages filled with various announcements, such as 
importers of hardware, tobacco, segars and snuff, drapers and tailors, 
famous medicines of which a partial list includes anti-bilious pills, 
elixir for violent colds and coughs, infallible ague and fever drops 
warranted to cure, itch ointment guaranteed to give relief by one 
application without mercury, a nervous cordial recommended as a 
grand restorative for inward weakness, Persian lotion for tetters 
and irruptions, essence and extract of mustard for rheumatism, 
damask salve, anodyne elixir for the cure of headaches, various 
toothache drops, eye water, corn plasters and other pharmaceutical 
matter to be taken for almost every malady then known. 

Merchants and dealers are also offering brass and wood clocks, 
hides and leather goods, soap and candles, coach and fringe mate- 
rial, foreign fruits, preserves and nuts, umbrellas, parasols and 
canes, while the Phoenix Siot Tower as it was then termed — it re- 

^ This little directory belonged to my paternal parent who died in 1906 when senior 
member of the old firm of Armstrong, Cator & Co. which was founded in 1805 by 
Thomas Armstrong, a north Irishman, who emigrated to America in a sailing vessel. 
iVty father (William J. H. Watters) was bom July 15th, 1834, on Parson's Creek, 
thirteen miles from where I am at present writing in Dorchester County, iMaryland, 
and happened to be the son of a country physician who visited his patients while 
moving about on horseback with saddle bags containing medicines, live leeches and 
other items pertaining to his profession. However, it so transpired that at the age of 
thirteen, my parent, having been left an orphan, departed from his native soil to cast 
his lot in the alluring City <rf Baltimore where I was bc«ii. 




mains standing today as a venerable landmark — is well illustrated 
with a clear wood cut in the center of an advertisement, at the bottom 
of which appears the name of Robert McKim, then president of the 

And now to check the names of certain citizens appearing in that 
little directory of a century ago with another list to be found in such 
a far different and elaborate publication as the first octavo edition 
of Audubon's Birds of America, an ornithological masterpiece. 
Within these original seven volumes are included the names of the 
first subscribers. Inasmuch as similar lists have usually been thrown 
out by bookbinders, it is rare nowadays to find an early publication 
of any character containing all of them. 

With the little directory, I have carefully made comparisons so 
far as the volumes in my possession are concerned. Audubon's initial 
patrons total as follows: Baltimore 166, New York 116, Philadel- 
phia 63, Qiarleston, S. C, 62, Boston 54, New Bedford, Mass., 46, 
and Richmond, Va., 32, while the remainder were distributed in 
lesser places over a wide field. 

The number of pre-publication subscribers, so far as I am able to 
determine, amounted to 797 — a goodly quantity when we consider 
that our nation was still young and travel and communication slow 
and tedious. However, as the early numbers began to appear addi- 
tional sets were ordered here and there by 2ealous individuals. The 
final sales amounted to 1,198, and the subscribers in Boston even- 
tually outnumbered those in Baltimore.^ However, the sets which 
found their way into the homes of influential Baltimoreans were 
nearly one-fifth of the original total, and were distributed in an 
appreciative and cultured center where Audubon tarried and made 
numerous friends. One of these was Dr. Gideon B. Smith, a sub- 
scriber and a foremost supporter.* The following letter to his family 
attests Ac welcome Audubon enjoyed here: * 

" F. H. Herrick, Audubon the Naturalist. New York, 1917. The work was in 100 
parts issued at intervals during the years 1840-1844 at $1.00 the part. For the elephant 
folio edition at $1,000 the set the artist had found but five subscribers in Maryland. 
These were Robert Gilmor, John B. Morris, Dr. Thomas Edmondson, one of the Smiths, 
and the State itself. 

" Dr. Smith (1793-1867) first achieved prominence through his advocacy of silkworm 
culture in this country. This was in 1829 when he announced through the American 
Parmer the development of a new silk reel and advertised for sale silkworm eggs at 
the rate of 10,000 eggs for |5.00. He became editor of this journal, was an entomol- 
ogist of note, studied medicine at the University of Maryland and received his degree 
in 1840. He conducted in Baltimore the Journal of the American Silk Society, which 
was organized in this city at the National Silk Convention of 1838. 

In token of obligation to Dr. Smith, Audubon gave the name " Smith's Longspur " 
to one of the bird species he discovered, not however a native or migrant in Maryland. 

* Reprinted in part from 7he Auk, 25: 166-169 (April, 1908) by permission. 



Baltimore, Feb. 21st, 1840. 
11 o'clodc at night. 

My dear friends 

So far so good, but alas ! I am now out of numbers to deliver to my sub- 
scribers here. Here! where I expected to procure a good number more. 
This list is composed of excellent men and all good pay. I have in my pocket 
upwards of one hundred names, whom I am assured are likely to subscribe. 
Therefor I will not leave Baltimore for some days to come at least. I forward 
a copy of this list to Chevalier by the same mail and yet you may as well 
inquire if he has received it. More numbers I must have as soon as possible 
as all my subscribers here are anxious about receiving their copies, unfor- 
tunately I had only 90 No. 2. I look upon this list as a capital list. I have 
sent Mr. Ridgley of Annapolis a No. 1 and a prospectus, and expect some 
names tomorrow evening from that quarter. 

I will remit money to Phila. and will let you know how much as soon as 
I can. The box has arrived here safely and tomorrow or Monday I will deliver 
Biographies &c. Dr. Potter is very ill and poor and yet I hope to get his 
note before I leave heie. ... 

The amount of attention which I have received here is quite bewildering, 
the very streets resound with my name, and I feel quite alarmed and queer 
as I trudge along. Mess. Meckle, Oldfield and the Brune family have all 
assisted me in the most kind and brotherly manner, indeed I may say that 
my success is mostly derived from these excellent persons. 

... I feel that Theodore Anderson will not live long. Mr. Morris has not 
yet returned from Annapolis. See that the notice in the Baltimore Patriot 
which I sent you yesterday is inserted in the Albion, the New York Gazette 
and if possible in the Courier and Enquirer. . . . 

I was invited last evening to a great ball, and should have gone had not 
my accident of shin bones prevented me. I am told that I would have had 
some 20 names there. 

. . . Recollect that our agents name is Gideon B. Smith and a most worthy 
man he k, bt§hlf recommended Robert Gilmor and others.' 


The original Baltimore roster appears in the back of Part 1 which 
came oS the press of J. B. Qievalier at Philadelphia in 1840 and 
contains the following charming introduction: 

Having been frequently asked, for several years past, by numerous friends 
of science, both in America and Europe, to present to them and to the public 
a work on the Ornithology of our country, similar to my large work, but of 
such dimensions, and at such a price, as would enable every student or lover 
of nature to place in his Libraty, and look upon it during his leisure hours 

° The Marylanders mentioned here by surname only have been identified as David 
Ridgely, librarian of the State Libraty 1827 to 1842; Dr. Nathaniel D. Potter, author 
and member of the University of Maryland faculty; Robert Mickle, cashier of the 
National Union Bank for nearly half a century; Granville S. Oldfield, commission 
merchant; Frederick W. Brune Sr. and his family; Col. Theodore Anderson, long a 
customs official here; and George S. Morris, agent for Thistle Mills. 



as a pleasing companion — have undertaken the task with the hope that those 
good friends and the public will receive the " Birds of America," in their 
present miniature form, with that favour and kindness they have already 
evinced toward one who never can cease to admire and to study with zeal 
and the m©st heartfelt reverence, the wonderful productions of an Almighty 

New York, Nov. 1839 

If any descendants of these earlier citizens who possessed both 
virtue and liberality should happen to read this article, then would 
it not be interesting to observe the name of an honored ancestor 
who actually came in contact or pleasantly had met the immortal 
naturalist, famous backwoodsman, historic wanderer and incom- 
parable bird artist, during his friendly sojourn in old Baltimore? 

May it therefore be noted that Robert McKim was the first Balti- 
more subscriber, while the fourth in order of sequence became the 
original owner of the set from which I am quoting, obtained in my 
youth from the elderly and affable Mr. Schmidt who maintained a 
second-hand book store on the east side of North Howard street 
just above Madison. At the time of making this highly prized 
acquisition, I attended Marston's Preparatory School on Madison 
avenue just around the bend from Eutaw street and opposite Mount 
Calvary Church. At such a period I could not readily produce the 
anxiously needed sixty dollars that the verbose old Teuton was ask- 
ing for what would now be a wonderful bargain. However, a per- 
son since departed and whose name I highly reverence, made such 
a cherished belonging possible, and now to paraphrase a part of 
Audubon's blissful introductory — ' I will look upon those beautiful 
colored plates and read his edifying text during my leisure hours as 
pleasing companions ' — indeed a delightful memorial from which 
can be gleaned the beautiful spirit of wild life and alluring out-of- 
doors as a reverie that will sbide until my end. 


Robert McKim Samuel Hoffman 

John Gable J. Pennington 

J, J. Audubon. 

J. Q. Hewlett 
Basil B. Gordon 
P. E. Thomas 
J. E. Atkinson 
C. W. Pairo 
R. M. R. Smith 
Thomas P. Williams 
Hough, Hupp & Co. 

Gustav W. Lurman 
Robert P. Brown 
H. D. Chapin 

Capt. Samuel Ringold, U. S. A. 

Robert Mickle 

John V. L. McMahon 

John Glenn 

Wm. E. Mayhew 



Evan T. Ellicott 
Elias Ellicott 

Samuel & Philip T. Ellicott 
Hugh McElderly 
Wm. McDonald & Son 
Thomas M. Smith 
Thomas Whitridge 
Samuel Hurlbut 

G. S. Oldfield 
John Hurst 
Francis T. King 
Wm. H. Beatty 
James W. Jenkins 
W. H. DeC. Wright 
John Ridgeley 

W. G. Harrison 
John Clark 
David Keener 
Charles Wyeth 
Enoch Pratt 
Martin Keith, Jr. 
James Harwood 
Samuel K. George 
M. N. Falls 
E. Jenner Smith 
Hon. Judge U. S. Heath 
William J. Albert 
George Baughman 
William Reynolds 
Miss Sarah F. Law 
General G. H. Stewart 
William N. Baker 
Richard Duvall 
George Brown 
Johns Hopkins 
Miss Emily H(^tmn 
Ch. Simon 

A. B. Riely 
C. S. Fowler 
Charles F. Mayer 
Mrs. Samuel Feast 

H. Lee Roy Edgar 
Charles W. Karthause 
Thomas G. Pitts 

B. Deford 
R. Sturges 
Alexander TurnbuU 
Philip T. George 
William Schley 

C. Kretzer 

D. S. Wilson 

John Buckler, M. D. 
W. F. Brune 
John H. B. Latrobe 
J. Mason Campbell 
Com. Jacob Jones, U. S. 
John L. Dunkel 
Wm. H. Hoffman 
Robert A. Taylor 
Joseph Todhunter • 
P. Macauley, M. D. 
Edward Patterson 
John Bradford 
George M. Gill 
Thomas Swan 
R. S. Stewart, M. D. 
St. Mary's College 
1. N. Nicollet 
W. C. Shaw 
Comfort Tiffany 
George W. Cox 
John C. Brune 
Edward Pitman 
J. McHenry Boyd 
George W. Dobbin 
T. Parkin Scott 
George T. Jenkins 
Hugh Jenkins 
John Nelson 
James Howard 
Frederick Rodewald 
John McTavish 
Samuel Riggs 
Thomas Harrison 
Andrew Aldridge 
John H. Alexander 
Samuel Jones, Jr. 
Thomas R. Ware 
George C. Howard 
Charles Fisher & Co. 
John R. Moore 
P. Baltzell 
Thomas Meredith 
Andrew D. Jones 
William Woodward 
J. S. Inloes 
S. T. Thompson 
John K. Randall 
William Kennedy 
Mark W. Jenkins 
James L. Hawkins 
Richard Plummer 


James Armour 

Thomas W. Hall 

George C. Morton 

Wm. Stewart Appleton 

Alex. L. Boggs 

Hugh Birkhead 

Thomas Palmer 

A. B. Cleveland, M. D. 

Hon. Judge John Purviance 

George W. Hall 

Lambert Gettings 

Z. C. Lee 

John M. Harman 

Thomas Butler 

Gideon B. Smith, M. D. 

James Cheston 

James Gibson 

J. T. Ducatel 

Robert Gilmor 

Mrs. William S. Winder 

William C. Pogue 

Isaac Muntoe 

Robert M. Ludlow 
Charles Howard 
Robert S. Voss 
Charles A. Williamson 
Benjamin D. Higdon 
George Tiffney 
James H. Marston 
R. M. McDowell 
Plaskett & Cugle 
Benjamin C. Ward 
O. C. Tiffney 
Richard Sewell 
Reverdy Johnson 
Richard Linthicum 
H. G. D. Carroll 
Alonzo Lilly 
E. B. Loud 
George S. Norris 
Brantz Mayer 
Samuel McPherson 
Nathan Rogers 
David U. Brown 


R. W. Gill Wm. S. Green 

T. W. Franklin A. RandaU 

T. W. Wells G. R. Barber 

Mrs. Bland Col. J. B. Walbach, U. S. A. 

Sommerville Pinckney Capt. P. F. Voorhees, U. S. N. 

Thomas H. Alexander 



"The man of business, the statesman, the patriot, the warrior, 
while surveying the monument of Washington, will feel a purer 
flame inspire his bosom, than does a pilgrim of Mecca, while wor- 
shipping at the tomb of Mahomet." Thus did Robert Mills, archi- 
tect of the Washington Monument in Baltimore, speak of the effect 
which he hoped his work would have on the minds of those who 
saw the memorial. He made the observation towards the end of a 
series of " reflections," after he had written in his notebook a de- 
tailed description of the column he proposed for Baltimore. The 
scheme was changed before it was presented to the Board of Man- 
agers, and there were further alterations during the actual con- 
struction, but these words appear to have been a text which guided 
Mills throughout his labors. 

The first step in the erection of a monument to the memory of 
George Washington was the presentation to the General Assembly 
of a petition for a lottery to raise money with which to defray the 
cost. The petition, signed by hundreds of Baltimore citizens, was 
got up in the latter part of the year 1809, just before the tenth anni- 
versary of the death of the first President. The Act granting the 
request was passed and approved on January 6, 1810, and a Board 
of Managers of twenty-three members was appointed to direct the 
proceedings. John Comegys, the first president, served until his 
death in 1815, when he was succeeded by James A. Buchanan. David 
Winchester was treasurer and Eli Simkins (not a member of the 
Board) fulfilled the duties of secretary. The other members were 
Robert Gilmor, Jr., James Calhoun, Jr., Dr. James Cocke, Isaac 
McKim, Washington Hall, Lemuel Taylor, Nicholas G. Ridgely, 
James Williams, General William H. Winder, Nathaniel F. Wil- 
liams, James Barroll, James Patridge, John Frick, Levi HoUings- 
worth, Fielding Lucas, Jr., Benj. H. Mullikin, George Hoffman, 
William Gwynn, Robert Miller, and Edward J. Coale.* 

These gentlemen arranged for the conduct of the lottery, and 
after three years sufficient progress had been made to take the next 
step. At a meeting on February 15, 1813, it was voted to offer $500 
for the best plan of a monument not to exceed $100,000 in cost. The 

^ Prepared for publication at request of the editor by William D. Hoyt, Jr. 

' The texts of the petition and the Act, and the minutes of all the meetings of the 
Board are in a manuscript volume, " Papers Sektii^ to Washington MoniHnent," in 
the Maryland Historical Society library. 


Original design by Robert Mills for the Washington Monument, 
Baltimore. From the Society's collections 


oflfer was to be given publicity in America and Europe, and plans 
and estimates must be submitted by January 1, 1814 i£ the designer 
were in the country or May 1 if abroad. On December 30, 1813, 
the time limit was extended to April 15, and so it was May 2 before 
a decision was reached. At that time, the Board selected the design 
presented by Robert Mills, an architect of South Carolina, who had 
been studying with Benjamin H. Latrobe in Philadelphia. 

The papers printed below trace in chronological sequence Mills' 
connection with the Washington Monument in Baltimore. Some of 
them are in the Maryland Historical Society, while copies of others 
have been supplied by Mr. Richard X. Evans, of Washington, D. C, 
a great-great-grandson of Mills and owner of an extensive collection 
of Mills letters. 

I. The Designs. 

The first paper is Mills' detailed plan for the monument, dated 
November 1813, and was probably written by the architect when he 
was preparing to enter the contest sponsored by the Board of Man- 
agers. It is contained in a slender, fifty-page blank book, which also 
includes several rough sketches and some calculations on the height 
and diameter of the various alternative columns shown. The most 
notable feature is the great care with which the detail of the decora- 
tion is described. 

Monument ' 

To the memory of General Washington, to be erected in the city of Balti- 
more, of octagonal form from the base to the top — in height, magnitude and 
form to be according to the plan that may be selected from the number of 
six colums herewith presented. 

To be constructed on the top a statue of exact likeness to the form & 
features of General Washington, mounted on horse back in the same mili- 
tary uniform, that he wore in the camp at the close of the revolutionary war. 
TKe steed to be of a color and form, that will represent his old charger, on 
which he was accustomed to ride in the army. The materials of the rider 
and horse, which are to be as large as life, to face the rising sun exactly, due 
East & to consist of pure brass. The interior part of the body of the monu- 
ment to be composed of common granite or freestone and the whole of the 
exterior to be composed of white or light colored American marble, highly 
polished & hewed & shaped so as to form complete joints. From the base 
upwards to the first ofFset on the column eight feet, to be wrought at each 
angle the half of an octagonal pillar, cut diagonally nine inches diameter 
& both at the base and eight feet distant at the offset to be formed from angle 
to angle a cornice in the Tuscan order. (See Figure 1.) Or, if thought 
preferable, might be substituted for the foregoing, eight octagonal pillars, 
eight feet high & nine inches diameter, to be erected one at each angle of 
the column. On the tops of these pillars to be placed a cornice, consisting 

' In Maryland Historical Society collections. 



of a marble slab eighteen inches in width and six inches in thickness, join- 
ing to and extending round the column. (See Figure 2.) The space or 
yard contiguous to the base of the column to be of diagonal 42% feet 
diameter, corresponding with the angles of the monument to be paved with 
blocks of party colored or variegated marble, hewn and polished on the 
upper surface. At the eight angles to be placed eight white marble posts 
about six feet in height, the tops of which to be formed into virgin heads 
and bosoms — ^their countenances to be highly finished and turned towards 
the spectators, displaying features, formed and proportioned on a modal of 
exquisit female beauty expressive of modesty & innocence. 

All the posts to be made of white marble about nine inches diameter and 
of diagonal form. Between the angle or virgin posts to be placed simple 
posts about five feet in height — the railing to be of smooth iron bars 
varnished a jet black and to be fashioned according to fancy. On the East, 
West, North and South of the monument to be placed two gate posts with a 
gate. Over the gate way to be suspended an elegant arch, consisting of 
white marble, the two ends resting on the two posts of each gate, bearing 
over the centre of each gate on the front of the arch the arms of the United 
States. All round the yard, which incloses the monument, to be formed a 
gravel walk, eleven feet in width, surrounded by an open fence of wooden 
posts & railing, painted white with vacant spaces for entrance, opposite the 
gates. The whole fence to be of octagonal direction & parallel with the 
inner yard. At each angle post and in exact disection with the virgin posts & 
amgles of the column to be planted an ornamental shade tree. (See Figure 
3.) On the monument in bass relief may be formed 4 courses of devices 
or emblems, each course to consist of eight groups of a description most 
aptly to represent the public character and important events, connected with 
tne public transactions of General Washington from the commencement of 
the revolutionary war to the time of his death. All the devices to be 
emblematical of facts, which shall regularly succeed each other in the order 
of time, and to begin on the East side the monument, proceeding west- 
wardly with the course of the sun in a horizontal direction round the column 
with a group on each of the eight squares. 

The first course of the devices represents. The former colonial dependence 
and military achievements of the United States by which they acquired their 
national independence. The second, those public services of Washington, 
which are connected with the principal events, that transpired during his 
two presidencies. The third, shows divers cuts of Washington, while out of 
public office in his retirement at Mount vernon, since the revolutionary 
war, whereby he recognized & inforced by example important republican 
principles in projecting and carrying into effect divers extensive plans and 
institutions, useful to the community ; and in the high duty of subordination 
to a free government, where a monarchy might have been substituted at his 
pleasure and the crown placed on his own head. Voluntarily retired from 
the highest public station in the gift of his government, to which he had 
been twice elevated by the unanimous choice of his countrymen he displayed 
in the unambitions walks of private life all the virtues of a private citizen. 
The fourth course of devices represents the happy effects of that inde- 
pendence & freedom, which were achieved and secured thru his skill, 
bravery and good management. 

The first course represent the colonial dependence of the United States. 



1 By 13 lams with a lion to watch them & by Dr. Franklin agent for 
the Colonies humbly presenting a petition in theif b^alf to his Britaak 
Majesty to repeal obnoxious acts of parliament. 

2 Resistance to arbitrary measures of the British government. 

By 3 ships in Boston harbour leaden with tea & men disguised as 
Indians in the act of throwing the tea over board. 

3 Battle of Lexington when the first blood was shed in the revolu- 
tionary war by the British, who before being fird on, discharged their 
muskets at the Provincials and killed on the spot eight of the militia. 

By the British commander on horse back in the attitude of pointing 
his sword at the militia — ^the regulars taking aim — 8 Americans laying 
dead on the field & the militia retreating. 

4 Washington appointed commander in chief. 

By the president of Congress delivering to Washington a sword & a 
commission inscribed Commander in Chief — 

5 The gloomy state & doubtful issue of American aflFairs in the fall of 
1776. By the shabby starved loc^s o£ a few officers & soldiers retreating 
before the enemy. 

6 Reverse of fortune, faTOcable to America, in the surrender of 900 
Hessians at Trenton. 

By the Hessian officers delivering their swords to the conquorer, while 
the captured privates were gro<andin£ that firelocks. 

7 Surrender of Cornwallis — 

By presenting his sword to Gen. Lincoln in presence of the Com- 
mander in chief, the prisoners grounding their firelocks. 

8 Washington at the last meeting of his officers at the close of the 
war, taking leave of them. 

By giving to an officer his right hand & holding a written address in 
his left, inscribed Fellow Soldiers — 

2^ Course of Devices — 

1 The languishment of commerce and the lack of public credit. 

By a ship in the harbour stripped of her sails and cordage — Ship 
carpenters with their hands folded, idolling about, & soldiers in tattered 
uniform selling public securities to speculators. 

2 Grand Federal Convention of the United States, with Washington 
for their president. 

By the president standing up & holding in his hand the Constitution, 
inscribed Constitution of the United States, the members with their 
right hand up approving unanimously in a final vote. 

3 Strong attachment & profound veneration to the first president elect 
on his way to the seat of government in New York, it being the first 
meeting of Congress under the new Constitution. 

By the president on horse back, met on Trenton bridge by mattrons 
in white, leading their daughters with baskets of flowers in their hands — 
and arch suspended over the bridge, on which is inscribed The De- 
fender of the mothers shall be the protestor of the daughters, met the 


inscription a dome or cupola of flowers & ever greens, encircling the 
dates December 26*^ 1776 & January 2^ 1777. 

4 Meeting of the first Congress under the new Constitution at the 
city of New York. 

By the president with his speech in his hand, inclining forwards & 
addressing both houses of Congress. 

5 Public credit supported & navigation and commerce flourishing. 

By a ship on the stocks — ^the carpenters with their utensels laboring, 
another ship under full sail bound to sea. 

6 A cabinet council, when the proclamation of neutrality was de- 
termined on. 

By Hamilton & Jefferson in the attitude of arguing before the 

7 The arts of civilized life imported to the savages. 

By a public agent delivering to 3 Indian diiefs a plow, a hoe a 

sickle, a spinning wheel & a loom. 

8 After the close of the second presidency, when the public, official 
services of president Washin^on termined, bis arrival at Mouat vernon 

By M" Washington with two gentlemen residing in her family, 
attended by two domestics, stepping oOt to receve the president from the 
carriage & bid him welcome. 

3<* Course of devices 

1 General Washington's principle of extending civil freedom to men 
of all descriptions. 

By presenting with his own hand to a slave a written grant of 
manumission, inscribed Freedom. 

2 His punctual performance of the minor, the essential public duties 
of a citizen in private life. 

By presenting at the poll a written ballot for a representative (having 
once ridden for that purpose several miles in a stormy day) . 

3 By delivering into court as foreman of a traverse jury a virdect (he 
having been selected into the office of a juror by his own consent, after 
retiring from the second presidency). 

4 His regard for the religion of his country & for religious institutions. 
By a preacher in the pulpit with his biWe & Wadiington in his pew 

with his psalm book in his hand. 

5 His taste for rural labors. 

By being placed in the midst of a group of his laborers in the field. 

6 His Zeal for public plans of extensive usefulness. 

By surveying the face of the country with 2 or 3 associates, holding 
in one hand a surveyors compass & in the other a surveyors chain. 

7 By his presence in a puHic school inspecting the mode by which a 
master instructs his sdidiats. 


8 The establishment of the society of Cincinnati to perpetuate the 
remembrance of the revolutionary officers. 

By copying the device of their medal and an officer with some 
remnants of an old uniform holding a plow. 

4^^ Course of devices — 

1 By the American eagle holding the declaration of Independence in 
his beek, on which is inscribed Freedom & Independence, and grasping 

. in one tallon a sword & in the other an olive branch. 

2 Agriculture. 

By a plow hitched to a pair of bullocks, a scythe, sickle, cart, a to- 
bacco, a rice, a cotton plant & sheef of wheat. 

3 The fisheries. 

By a fisherman pulling out of the water by hook and line & a 
codfish ; & a whaleman aiming a harpoon at a whale. 

4 The Mechanic Arts. 

A broad ax, an augar, a chisel, blacksmith's hammer, an anvil & 
tongs — some ship carpenter tools — a work bench a square & compasses. 

5 Manufactures. 

Manufacturing tools, a spinning wheel — a loom & appearances of a 
fulling mill. 

6 The Sciences. 

Franklin conducting lightening from the clouds & Retinghouse in- 
specting an orrery. 

7 Commerce & Navigation. 

Neptune emerging from the ocean, grasping his trident in one hand 
and the declaration of Independence in the other. 

8 National bravery & nautical skill. 

Mars with all the emblems of war — a 44 gun frigate with her deck 
cleard for action bearing down upon the enemy. 

The courses of devices may be formed round the column, beginning so far 
from the top as to be viewed distinctly and proceeding towards the base at 
proper distances from each other. And they may be wrought on such parts 
of the column as will render them most ornimental & intelligible. 

Should the foregoing devices or emblems be thought too numerous and 
complex to ornament a monumental column one of the two following sets 
of devices consisting of four groups each, may be substituted. Each group 
of devices to be extended over two sides of the column — the angle being 
supposed obtuse enough to present like as a plain to the eye the devices of 
two sides or squares at once. In this manner four groups would surround 
the column, which groups I propose to place about half way between the 
base and top. 

1 The bravery, vigor & innocence of national Infancy represented By 
Hercules in cradle, strangling a serpent, which came to molest him & 
thirteen lambs with a lion to watch and protect them. 



2 The spirit of the nation in manhood displayed in understanding and 
asserting her rights. 

By a large eagle holding in her beek the constitution of the United 
States, inscribed Free & Independent, reposing firmly one foot on 
the alter of Freedom & pressing the other on the paw of a lion 

3 The effects of national Independence & freedom, displayed by the 
various fruits of industry, in agriculture, commerce, the mechanic arts 
& sciences. 

By a sheep, a plow hijtched to a pair of bullocks, a sheef of wheat, a 
rice, cotton & tobacco plant — a pine tree, a whale — a codfish — one ship 
discharging import & another under full sail, bound to sea — a broadax — 
a square & pair compasses — a spinning wheel & a loom. 

4 A state of peace the best policy of the nation. 

By a lamb standing over a wolf, while reposing on the ground, 
asleep and reposing by the side of a kid & a calf by a young lion, round 
the neck of which a little child extends his arms — a cow and a bear 
feeding side by side and the calf & cub laying down together. 

Or, the following might be substituted for the last four mentioned groups. 

1 Mars delivering to Wadiington a sword & instructing him in the 
art of war. 

2 The godess of Liberty directing him to the temple of Freedom, 
which is supported by thirteen pillars. 

3 Minerva inspiring him with wisdom & enterprise & instructing him 
in the arts of civil polity. 

4 The effects of Washington's patriotism & public services displayed. 
By the godess Ceres with her lap covered wim a cornucopia. 

The simple historical facts or events represented by the respective emblems 
or devices above, may on the same side of the monument down near the base 
be inscribed with their exact dates. And to facilitate the explanation of the 
several groups, they might be each numbered the same as the description of 
events they are intended to represent. The designer and the artist may 
select from the various devices I have presented such as may be deemed most 
appropriate. Or from the same devices, or such others as he may himself 
conceive, or design, may form such new groups or combinations as can with 
the most facility, be laid out & executed in the work. Men, animals and 
other small objects may be drawn on a scale of 3 or 4 inches to the foot. 
Objects of great magnitude, such as ships must be diminished to a con- 
venient size, that will not bear a proportion with other objects. If, to save 
expense or for any other purpose it should seem most proper, all devices and 
inscriptions may be omitted. 

On the space or side of the monument opposite the Eastern gate, be- 
tween the pavement & first offsets, General Washington's exact likeness may 
be formed in bass relief under 'Mdi be inaaibed the foUomi^ 


To the Memory 

George Washington 
Commander in chief of the American Army 
During the revolutionary war 
First president of the United States 
Under the new Constitution 
He was born 22<i Feb. 1732— 
He died 14*'' Dec?. 1799 — 
This monument was erected 
As a voluntary tribute 
Of respect and veneration 
Due to his exalted merit 
By his fellow countrymen 
May 1814— 

Under this inscription might be placed an elegant urn, encircled by two 
sprigs of cypress with the figure of Liberty, inclining over the urn in a 
mournful posture. 

From the several plans for a monument herewith presented the board of 
managers can adopt the one most agreeable to their fancy, in erecting which 
an expence will not be incurred exceeding the fund proposed. I have 
endeavored to impart to the intended monument a figure & a color, which 
according to the most approved authors on taste is conformable to the quali- 
ties of beauty and elegance; which qualities may be reduced to the follow- 
ing — comparatively small — ^smooth — variety in the direction of the parts — 
not of a clumsy or heavy figure by too much thickness for the height or 
length — but rather of a slender, airy form — ^no angles but such as are obtuce, 
or nearly approaching a circular curve, a weak white or light color. — 

The devices are intended to present in a birds eye view an emblematical 
history of Washington's public life; or in other words, the most important 
events in the most important era of the history of the United States for 25 
years in a manner that would best display the extraordinary character of the 
principal actor in the drama. But a simple column without any devices or 
inscriptions may be erected, if such as have been suggested should seem too 
numerous, complex, expensive, unappropriate, or inexpedient. 


On a design for a monument of Washington. 
A monument is designed for the commemoration of some great event, or 
for a remembrance of a public character, who has been distinguished by 
performing great & good actions for his country. It being a strong & 
permanent testimony of public approbation, its general design, particular 
devices & inscriptions should be simple, expressive and significant, that they 
might bring home to the immediate recollection of a spectator the events & 
the virtues it was intended to commemorate. The form or figure should be 
such as to combine all the qualities which would render it a most beautiful 
object. The materials should be solid durable and rare; and the workman- 
ship executed with the most exquisite taste and skill that the monument 
might exhibit the best specimen of the fine arts for the age and country in 
which it was created; and that all who approached it might feel the power 



of the artist in exciting the love of country and the love of virtue. The 
monument of Washington being intended to preserve the remembrance and 
to honor the character of one of the greatest & best men that this or any 
other country has produced, will show to after ages, that the great republic, 
whose foundation he laid and whose prosperity he eflFected, has not been 
ungrateful to his memory. By celebrating the virtues of a man, who formed 
a most extraordinary assemblage of moral & intellectual endowments, that 
rested not in mere abstract speculation, but shown out in the most uniform 
exemplary deportment, active 2eal & uncommon performances, embracing 
the various & complicated interests of society — by celebrating the virtues 
of such a man, I say, we exite that virtuous emulation, which is the firmest 
support of a republic Washington was, perhaps, as perfect a model of human 
excellence in the agrigate as has appeared among men since the Savior of the 
world. Testimonials of honor from his cauntrymen will never make virtuous 
praise cheap. So rare are such objects of eulogy, that applause will not 
depreciate by being profusely lavished. Commendations bestowed on him 
are not the effect of cold formal parade, dictated partly by a love for false 
grandeur & partly by the passion of servile fear. They are the sincere spon- 
taneous effusions of a heart, penetrated with a sense of his preeminent worth 
& moved from its own voluntary impulse to make a free will offering. 

The man of business, the statesman, the patriot, the warrior, while survey- 
ing the monument of Washington, will feel a purer flame inspire his bosom, 
than does a pilgrim of Mecca, while worshipping at the tomb of Mahomet. 
The monumental honors of Washington will excite in the minds of in- 
genious youth an ambition to deserve by great achievements that fame, 
which is sanctioned by the purest virtue & can be obtained only by a series of 
arduous & unwearied labors. If the poets & the painters, the historians and 
the artists have bestowed their best skill & most diligent labors to extend 
and perpetuate the fame of tyrants, who have in overcoming the countries, 
subjected to their sway, taken life from the one half of the people, that 
they might deprive the other half of their civil freedom, what honors should 
be conferred on the man, who has always aimed to prevent the effusion of 
human blood by attempting to preserve peace & to dignify the speldor of 
victory by mitigating as much as possible the unavoidable calamities of war.' 
If all the fine arts have been put in requisition by chringing courtiers & 
dependents to immortal ire an Alexander the Great, a Charles XII or a 
Bonaparte, what sacrifice of wealth, what human efforts in skill & labor 
ought republican America to consider too great in rearing a monument to 
her Washington? The foundation of their fame consists in multiplying 
human miseries by depriving whole nations of life or liberty, that of his in 
multiplying the means of human happiness, & inwresting from servile, 
colonial dependence a brave people, animated with the love of freedom & 
restoring them to that liberty they aspired to & to that political independence, 
of which their valor, their intelligence & their patriotism had rendered them 
worthy. The heroes of ancient & modern story have sought fame by the 
most formidable display of their power — ^he by rendering his power sub- 
servient to his virtue. Their means of renown were commensurate with their 
power to lay waste & to excite terror, his were restricted by the most severe 
councils of an enlightened conscience. They labored to acquire — ^he to 
deserve glory. — 

(Nov. 1813.) 


The second paper is Mills' letter of transmittal which accom- 
panied his entry in the contest for the design. He takes advantage 
of this rather informal communication to tell something of his own 
training and experience. He was now aged 33. 

Philadelphia January 12* 1814* 

The Honorable 

The Board of Managers of the Washington) 
Monument. Baltimore 3 


Through your indulgence in granting me a little time beyond the period 
fixed upon in your advertisement, for designs for the Monument you pur- 
pose to erect to commemorate the inestimable virtues and glorious deeds of 
the immortal Washington, I have now the honor of submitting to your con- 
sideration the result of my labors towards accomplishing the Wishes of your 
honorable board — Accompanying this letter you will find a book of designs 
with a description of the Monument and a large Drawing exhibiting one of 
the principal fronts in geometrical elevation — ^The whole of the drawings 
are projected upon geometrical principals, as being best calculated to convey 
a correct view of the proportions and Qiaracter of the mass, in order to 
judge of the practicability of the structure; This mode of exhibiting a build- 
ing where it is wished to produce an effect of beauty exciting Interest, falls 
much short of that for which the aid of perspective is called in; Perhaps I 
may have the pleasure of exhibiting to you a picturesque view of my design 
which will place it in a point of sight more to its advantage should its gen- 
eral principles meet your approbation : It would afford me much satisfaction 
if what I have done shoula merit your partiality. Being an American by 
Birth and having also the honor of being the first American who has passed 
through a regular course of Study of Architecture in his own Country, it is 
natural for me to feel much Solicitude to aspire to the honor of raising a 
Monument to the memory of our illustrious Countryman. The Education I 
have received being altogether American and unmixed with European habits, 
I can safely present the design submitted as American founded upon those 
general principles prefaced in the description contained in the Book of 
Designs. For the honor of our Country, my sincere wish is that it may not 
be said; To foreign Genius and to foreign hands we are indebted for a 
Monument to perpetuate the Glory of our beloved Qiief. Owing to some 
particular engagements the past year I have been unable to do that Justice 
to the Subject of this Monument which it was my earnest wish to accom- 

fjlish: The general principle or Outline of the Design however I have had 
ong under Consideration, and on comparing it with many others that sug- 
gested themselves, I feel a confidence in recommending it to your favor, 
particularly as from its simplicity of Character and with proper attention to 
the Detail of decoration its Execution may be brought within the scope of 
One hundred thousand dollars — On the subject of these decorations I would 
observe as they are secondary in their Objects, time and consideration may 
enable me to improve their appropriate Character should I be gratified with 
your Confidence; with this I may be able here after to suggest many Ideas 

* From the Society's collections. 



which may be found interesting — As I have dwelt so long on this subject 
permit me Gentlemen to solicit your Indulgence yet a little further: As I 
have not the pleasure of being known to you, allow me the liberty of laying 
before you some information relative to my professional Capacity that in the 
Event of your Opinion being favorable to my wishes I may take the oppor- 
tunity of recommending to you my further Services in carrying your Design 
into execution — The letters of introduction with which some of my friends 
have obligingly furnished me, though they speak much more in my favor 
than I can offer, yet I would beg leave to refer you to them for the informa- 
tion I would communicate. "What further explanation or information I can 
give relative to my design I shall be happy to lay before you. 

With every desire of being useful and wishing you every success to your 
laudable exertions to do Justice to the virtues of so great and exalted a 
Character as our Washington I salute you Gentlemen with respect — 

Rdjt. Mills. 
of 8° Carolina 

Architect Ph« 

The third paper is Mills' formal statement o£ his plan, much 
underlined for emphasis. It is written in a bound volume, and is 
followed by seven sheets of drawings of the proposed monument. 
There are colored sketches of the principal fronts, the " second 
fronts," a section through the center, the plan of the great capital, 
the plan half way up the column, the plan at the top, and two plans 
at the base. 

Gentlemen ' 

In laying the designs herewith submitted, before you, I would beg leave to 
make a few remarks upon Monuments in general, brfore I proceed to de- 
scribe the one I have the honor now to present. 

The character that ought to designate all Monuments should be, solidity, 
simplicity, and that degree of cheerfulness which should tempt the con- 
templation of the mind, and not occasion it to turn away in gloom or dis- 
gust; A Monument intended to perpetuate the Virtues of the deceased, 
should particularly carry with it, an air of cheerful gravity ; & We, who live 
under the light of the Christian revelation, should be cautious, to avoid, as 
much the frivolity of Heathen superstition, as the gloom of Egyptian dark- 
ness. The Monument which now claims our Attention, is intended to be 
erected, not only to hand down to posterity, the Virtues of a Man, but the 
glory of a Hero; it therefore should combine two characters in its design, 
the Sarcophagic and Military. Monuments isolated, or in the open air, should 
be towering, and commanding in their elevation, especially when they are 
encircled by a Qty, otherwise its popular intention is frustrated. A Trium- 
phal monument having much to record of historical fact, should present to 
the sculptor as much surface as its extent of design will admit of, and as 
inscriptions contain within themselves much of enrichment, but few of 
emblematic or hieroglyphic decorations are required. On the subject of 
decoration in general, I would beg leave to observe, that it has ever been 

' From the Society's collections. 


my study to make these subservient, or secondary, to the main design, and 
whenever introduced, that they should carry the mark of utility on their 
face, as well as possess a character of reference to the subject they would 
represent. I shall not take up your time by entering into an examination or 
Description of the designs of andent or modern monuments, or attempt to 
draw any comparison between them and the one I have the honor now to 
submit to your consideration, because this can answer no good end at pcme&t; 
Your own information on the subject, can supply what ideas may be neces- 
sary, in determining, whether (Ms design does not possess some originality, 
and whether this originality has sufficient merit to recommend it to the honor 
to which it aspires — Permit me now to draw your attention to the description 
of the design in question; — The Mass, presents the appearance of a Greek 
Column, elevated on a grand pedestal; the column assumes the doric propor- 
tions, which possess solidity, and simplicity of character, emblematic of that 
of the illustrious personage to whose memory it is dedicated, and har- 
monising with the spirit of our Government; The pedestal of this column 
is a square mass, broken on each jront by projecting wings ; — the main fronts 
are supported by a screen of doric columns, through the center of which, 
a grand archway is pierced; The number of Voussoirs comprising this 
Voussure, correspond with the number of States in the Union, each State 
being designated by a Star encircled by a Coronna Triumphalis; On the key 
voussoir or Key Stone the Arms of the United States are represented in Basso 
relievo. The Ornaments enriching these fronts are the following; Central, 
The name of the illustrious Washington, in Roman Characters on a 
broad Frieze; The Wing buildings are surmounted with Trophies of Vic- 
tory* On the face of the wing buildings are sculptured, the Arms of Mary- 
land & Virginia encircled by appropriate Wreaths, on each side of which is 
represented an inverted torch, with a Star below (Sarcophagic emblems) ; 
Under the Insignia of Maryland are inscribed, words to the following effect: 
" The gratitude of Maryland bids this public testimony rise to commemotate 
her love, to her political Father and Benefactor, Washington." Under the 
Insignia of Virginia are inscribed, words to the following effect " Virginia 
gave our Hero Birth, — Virginia saw our Hero die." — ^The secondary fronts 
present a grand flight of Steps which lead up to a Colonnade through which 
you pass into the Monument and by an inner flight of Steps ascend to the 
grand platform: Over the wing buildings the Trophies of Victory are seen 
in profile — Over the Arch of Entrance under the Colonnade the name of 
Washington is again inscribed, and on the faces of the wing buildings are 
sculptured similar insignia and inscriptions to those on the front: The whole 
of this Mass, occupies an extent on the plan, of 65 ft. by 50 ft. and an eleva- 
tion of 20 feet independent of the Trophies of Victory. 

Arrived at the platform which crowns this pedestal, and which is inclosed 
by a balustrade, we see the commencement of the great Column, The diameter 
of this is more than 20 feet and its elevation above 120 ft. divided in its 
height by Six iron railed galleries, which encircle it like bands, presenting 
promenades to accommodate the reading of those historical inscriptions re- 
corded on the shaft of the column. The number of Compartments on the 

* (In place of the military Trophies Statues of 4 of our most distinguished Generals 
BHiy be placed, or emblematic statues representing the Unity of the people, the grati- 
tude of Maryland, the Genius of America &c.) 



shaft, answer to the eventful years of our revolution: The record begins 
with the memorable year 1776, and is brought down to the period of the 
surrender of Lord Cornwallis at York in 1781. The records subsequent to 
this, are inscribed upon the base of the Column; Those preceeding the great 
commencing period find a place at the top — 

The plan of inscription that suggests itself for our adoption seems to be 
the following; to record the main historical facts connected with our Revolu- 
tion, for these are so closely interwoven with the Life of our national Father, 
that a brief statement of these, under the different years they occured, 
would present the best view to posterity of the Greatness, Excellence & 
Wisdom of that Man whose memory with blessings shall live through every 
age, & whose every word merits to be recorded in characters of Light: 
Another circumstance connects itself with the adoption of this plan, which 
is peculiarly interesting; That of enrolling the names &c recounting the ser- 
vices of those illustrious Men who were his Compatriots in Arms & whom 
he delighted to honor: The names of these great men come in so necessarily 
when recording those battles &c in which the wisdom and valor of their 
Chief were manifest, that a few words will speak here what would require a 
Volume elsewhere. When will an opportunity so honorable to Maryland 
again occur, & at an Expence so trivial, to do justice to the Memories of men 
to whose exertions & sacrifices we owe so much? On an examination of 
the drawing you will find the general outline of the method of arranging 
this plan of Inscription: On the lower Compartment of the Column and 
under the Year 1781. is a representation of the surrender of Lord Corn- 
wallis at York, in Basso Relievo: In this place I would beg leave to remark 
that there is another event in the Life of Washington that presents a noble 
Subject for Sculpture and which exhibits the character of that Great Man 
in a point of view strikingly grand; I allude to the period when Congress 
was in Session at Annapolis in Maryland, when amid a crowd of Spectators 
we behold him resigning his Sword & Commission as Commander in Chief 
of the Armies of the United States, into the hands of The President of Con- 
gress; As this interesting Scene took place in Maryland and as Maryland 
first erects a public Testimony of her Gratitude to the Hero, it may present 
itself as a subject for Consideration (should the designs which I have the 
honor of laying before you meet, your favorable indulgence & approbation) 
whether Maryland does not claim this subject for special Record in prefer- 
ence to the other, — ^provided only One can be executed — The Chapters of 
historical Events, inscribed upon the Shaft of the great Column, are sepa- 
rated by military & Sarcophagic emblems ; The years in which the events take 
place stand at the head of the Chapters encircled by military wreaths, The 
circular Space which these occupy form apertures which light the interior of 
the monument. The enrichments of the Echinus (or grand moulding of the 
Capital of the Column) are constituted of these words, " George Washing- 
ton the Father of his Country." These are cast in Brass & Iron as well as 
the entire Capital with its decorations — This great Column is surmounted by 
a Quadriga or Chariot of Victory in which is represented the immortal Wash- 
ington in military Costume guided by Victory. It will be unnecessary here 
to enter into any detail of description of this commanding Groupe, the draw- 
ing being sufficient to point out its general effect and appropriate Character. 
The whole Mass is proposed to be cast in Brass together with the Zocle or 
platform upon which it rests: The Object in making the body of the Zbcle 


hollow is for the purpose of produdng the Effect now to be described: The 
interior structure of this monument presents a double wall, between which 
ascend the steps that communicate with all the galleries & the top of the 
Column; this mode of Construction produces the effect in strength, of a 
thickness of Wall equal to the section of both the Walls & Steps; The Space 
occupied by the Walls & Steps being not equal to the diameter of the great 
Column, leaves a Circular space in the Center of the Monument which opens a 
view from the Base to the Apex of the Column; This aperture descends and 
intersects the Vault of the great arch-way, pierced through the fronts of the 
grand pedestal, by which you command an interior view from the pavement of 
the Street to the Zocle of the Quadriga, a height of at least 140 feet; The Eye 
in directing its view along this dim and elongated Vault, is immediately 
arrested by a brilliant light that terminates its length. This effect is the result 
of opening the sides of the Zocle of the Quadriga mentioned above and it 
will prove an object as novel as curious — The Material proposed to be used 
in the Construction of this Monument is Marble; Its superiority, strength, 
beauty and durability, recommend it above every other to our Notice, the 
abundance of it in the vicinity of Baltimore, gives every advantage in obtain- 
ing it and that upon reasonable grounds of cost. It will be unnecessary to 
enter into an Explanation of the plans contained in the book of designs as 
what is written upon them will suffice to point out their local references, 
and as it will occupy too much of your time and serve no good purpose now 
to enter into the detail of construction, I shall close my observations after 
expressing the wish, as an American, that the design I have now the pleasure 
of submitting to you may be found worthy of that attention, which shall 
entitle me to the high honor, of contributing my mite to exhibit to admiring 
Ages, yet unborn, the glorious deeds of the Hero and Statesman, the exalted 
worth of the Father of our Country, The Immortal Washington. 

With sentiments of respect 

I salute you 

The honorable Rob*. Mills 

The board of Managers Arch^. Philadelphia 

of Washington Monument 

The next two letters were written by Mills to follow up his origi- 
nal presentation to the Board of Managers. It is quite possible that 
the second one, undated and unsigned, was a partial draft of the 

Philadelphia April 6«» 1814 • 

Dear Sir 

Permit me to encroach on your goodness in asking the favor of you to lay 
this letter before the Board of Managers of the Washington Monument, 
with a drawing which I have this day forwarded (in a box) pr. the Union 
line of packets directed to Eli Simkins Esq'. Baltimore. 

* From the Society's collections. 



In my former communication to the Board I anticipated that perhaps I 
might be able before the final decision of the question of the design was 
made to transmit them a Perspective view, of the Monument I had the honor 
of laying before them. This I have now accomplished, and in the box 
addressed to M''. Simkins you will find this view, which though not highly or 
nearly finished will give such a general idea of the Character and Mass of 
the building which a sirnple geometrical view never is capable of present- 
ing. — I must apologise, if the scenery in the back ground is not altogether 
correct; the hasty sketch I made of it while in Baltimore, and perhaps some 
liberties taken to produce what painters call efFect, may justify or excuse the 

On the ground of cost I would repeat what I have already observed, that 
the nature of the design I have submitted admits of any extension or retrac- 
tion of expenditures which the circumstances or the views of the Board may 
demand. — If the principle of the design is approved of, there will be no 
diflciculty in suiting its cost to any appropriations that may be thought 
expedient. — 

On a review of the design in regard to its execution (should it ever re- 
ceive this honor) I would recommend that the Grand Pedestal or Base of the 
Monument be executed of Granite, except the Basso-relievos which should be 
Marble — Its character as well as effect will be more striking considered as the 
grand Zocle of a Marble or Free Stone superstructure of great elevation. — 
The Great Column may be of free stone embossed with Marble, — if it is 
thought expedient to use this stone as being the product of the native state 
of our illustrious Washington. — 

If it were practicable I would recommend that you procure some of the 
real cannon &c. taken by Genl. Washington particularly those or part of 
those taken at York; for the purpose of placing among the trophies or 
emblems of victory displayed over the pedestal wings. An addition of this 
kind would speak more than volumes to the popular mind, and they would be 
contemplated with double interest by posterity — 

I wiU not take up more of the attention of the Board by further remarks, 
but draw to a close, after expressing my thanks for your kind attentions, and 
my respectful salutations to the Gentlemen your Colleagues, — 

I have the honor Sir 
to be yours &c 

Robert Gilmore Esqr Rob*. Mills 


[Mills to Gilmor?] ^ 

Dear Sir 

Thro' your indulgence I will take the liberty of adding a few general re- 
marks to those which I had the honor of laying before the Board of Man- 
agers of the W. M. when I submitted my design. As I stated in that com- 
munication I have accomplished a drawing exhibitting the design I pro- 
posed in a perspective view which will give a better idea of its massiveness & 

' From the collection of Mr. Richard X. Etuis. 


character of outline than a geometrical view is capable of. This drawing I 
have this day put on board the Union line of packets by Newcastle & French- 
town to Baltimore directed to Eli Simkins, Esq'^ Baltimore, of which I would 
request the favor of you to give him notice. Since I had the pleasure of 
seeing you, several ideas of designs of the Monument have pass'd in review 
before my mind, but for simplicity, and every requisite whici the subject or 
your wishes demand I felt satisfied with none in comparison to the one sub- 
mitted. In this design such is its character of construction that less or more 
than the appropriation made can accomplish its execution and yet preserve 
its great features unimpaired. 

The following letters were addressed to Mills the day the Board 
accepted his design. Robert Gilmor's friendly note indicates that 
Mills' teacher, Benjamin Latrobe, may have been one of his com- 
petitors, and the minutes of the Board show that Maximilian Gode- 
froy did submit a plan. This would account for Latrobe's bitterly 
critical comment to Godefroy on Mills' scheme.* 

Baltimcwe 2^ May 1814 » 


At a meeting of the Managers of the Washington Monument this day, 
agreeably to notice, to award the premium for the best design of a monu- 
ment, the one furnished by you received the approbation of the board, & we 
as members of the corresponding committee are directed to communicate 
this information, & that your dft on Mr. Eli Simkins, their Secretary for five 
hundreds dollars (being the amount of the premium) will be paid at sight. 

Agreeably to the terms of the public notice, should you have committed to 
you the execution of your plan, the amount of the premium will be deducted 
from your Commission or contract, as the adoption of your design is pre- 
sumed «to be a sufficient cwnpensation for what you have already doae. 

Your mo. ob. s 
R. Milk, Esq. Isaac M'Kim 

Baltimore 2* May 1814 " 

My dear Sir 

I beg leave to congratulate you on your design having received the suf- 
frage of the board of Managers this day of which I have just written you 
officially with my Colleague Mr. M'Kim. It is gratifying to me that a native 

° " Mills is a wretched designer. He came to me too late to acquire principals of 
taste. He is a copyist, and is fit for nothing else," and more in this strain. See Caro- 
lina V. Davison, " Maximilian Godefroy," Maryland Historical Magazine, XXIX: 
209 (1934). 

" From the Evans collection. 
EvMis collection. Published in part in Mrs. H. M. P. Gallagher, Robert Mills. 
New York, 1935, p. 107. 




American artist should have borne the palm away from foreigners whose 
designs certainly did them great credit. I have a strong suspicion one very 
handsome pyramid with a grand portico was from the pencil of Mr. Latrobe, 
but we do not positively know it. Your plan was very generally approved of 
but some doubts existed in the minds of some of the managers who live on 
the square where it is to be erected, and which it is most desirable you should 
remove, as they may carry their doubt & fears into the neighborhood. [& 
prevent .''] the erection of it altogether. They are afraid it will be liable to 
being overturned by some shock, owing to its great elevation. The nature 
of the foundation which is sandy, the expense also is dreaded as requiring a 
sum. far beyond what our finances can afford. I wish you to write me fully 
on both these heads, and if you can furnish a tolerably correct estimate of 
the cost of the masonry first excluding all ornament of sculpture & bronze, 
except on the basement or side, you will enable me to overcome some preju- 
dices. Marble would be better than freestone for the casing of the column 
but we fear the expense. If you had it in your power to contract for its 
execution, it would be liked. Should your arrangement in Philad* in the 
course of a week or two allow you to come to Baltimore, it might be not to 
your disadvantage. 

I am very sincerely 

Yours R. Gilmor Jr. 

(To be continued.) 


By George C. Keidel 

Keynote: " It was commenced in the absence of correct 
intelligence." — R. E, Lee, 15 Apiil, 1868. 

Soon after the opening of the Gettysburg campaign in June, 1863, 
Major-General J. E. B. Stuart, in supreme command of the cavalry 
of the Army of Northern Virginia, received orders from General 
Robert E. Lee to proceed into Maryland and Pennsylvania in person 
with three brigades of cavalry and to act as cavalry escort on the 
right flank of General Ewell, who was leading the Confederate 
advance to York and the Susquehanna River. This was the post of 
honor and danger nearest to the enemy represented especially by the 
Army of the Potomac under General Joseph Hooker, but also next 
to the troops of the Middle Department commanded by General 
Robert C. Schenck with headquarters at Baltimore and charged 
above all with the guarding of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 
With both of these coinamands Jeb Stuart was soon to come into 
armed conflict. 

Finding his way blocked in Virginia on June 25 by the Army of 
the Potomac, then on the march northward, Jeb Stuart made a forced 
march by the rear flank of the enemy, and passing through Dranes- 
ville, Va., he crossed the Potomac at Rowser's Ford a short distance 
south of Seneca. The crossing was made without mishap on a foggy 
night, June 27-28, in the face of great difficulties, and about four 
thousand Confederate cavalry stood on Maryland soil with a few 
pieces of light horse artillery, two ambulances — ^but no supply train. 

After resting men and horses for some hours on various Mont- 
gomery County farms, the Confederates advanced to Rockville, it 
then being Sunday morning, June 28. About noon that day they 
captured a Federal army train proceeding from the outskirts of 
Washington towards Frederick, then the headquarters of the Army 
of the Potomac, which had just been placed under General George 
G. Meade. This capture proved in the end to be a misfortune. 

At Rockville the Confederate force was divided, one brigade pro- 
ceeding on the left flank nearest the enemy towards Sykesville, and 
two brigades with the long captured baggage train and some four 
hundred prisoners recently picked up proceeding under Jeb Stuart 
hknself on the right flank to Brocdficville. 

* Copyright 1939 by George C. Keidel. 




Here during the night o£ June 28-29 Jeb Stuart paroled a large 
number o£ prisoners while occupying the Presbyterian manse of the 
village. Mounting his horse again at 1 A. M. on June 29, he headed 
towards Westminster — and promptly fell asleep on his steed, while 
the long caravan with him slowly wended its way northward. At 
daybreak he passed through Cooksville on the turnpike leading 
westward from Baltimore to Frederick, and thus passed out of the 
extended suburban district near "Washington, which city had been 
alarmed by various rumors of cavalry raids. 

By this time, the morning of June 29, General Meade at Fred- 
erick had been informed by telegraph from army headquarters in 
Washington that Confederate cavalry was roving about in Mont- 
gomery County, to which he had replied that he was too busy to 
bother with them; and General Schenck at Baltimore had been told 
that Confederate cavalry was threatening both branches of the Bal- 
timore and Ohio Railroad, to which he responded by sending all 
available troops to the Relay House ten miles out. And then all 
the telegraph wires to Frederick were cut by the Confederates, and 
no messages could get through. 

Meanwhile Jeb Stuart and his men, horses and mules were slowly 
advancing northward through Howard County, where they were in 
the Baltimore sphere of influence. Men and horses were fast be- 
coming exhausted, and frequent stops were made to graze the horses 
and mules in fields along the route which were then full of hay, 
wheat and young corn. The men got what food they could, and 
eagerly took all the horses they could find while leaving their worn- 
out steeds behind them. The pace slowed down from forty to twenty- 
five miles a day! 

Early on the morning of June 29 the Confederate advance on the 
left flank seized the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad at Sykesville, and 
a few hours later Jeb Stuart with the other two brigades and the 
train crossed the same railroad at Hood's Mill a few miles to the 
east. All railroad traffic between Baltimore and Frederick ceased 
for nearly twenty-four hours while the cavalry was passing. The 
railroad officials quickly transmitted this intelligence to Baltimore; 
but soon afterward the railroad was repaired and traffic to Frederick 
was resumed on June 30. 

In the early afternoon of June 29 a Westminster physician, while 
visiting patients living south of that town, came upon the advance 
guard of the Confederates who had halted on the Washington Road 
and were grazing their animals in the fields nearby. The physician 
drove back to town and gave tihe alaan, which was not taken seriously 



by the major (N. B. Knight) of the Federal cavalry squadron that 
had recently ridden up from Baltimore and was encamped on a hill 
north of the town itself. He had no idea of the large cavalry force 
that was approaching from the direction of Washington afar off. 
So he refused to be disturbed at the inn where he had settled him- 
self, and merely sent word to a sdscMcdiBftte oiker to MIend to the 

Ninety men of a Delaware cavalry regiment mounted, and as the 
Confederate advance reached the centre of the town and were 
heading towards Gettysburg charged down the hill into the enemy's 
flank. In the brief but spirited struggle that ensued most of the 
Federal cavalry were either killed or captured. The major and the 
remaining cavalrymen under his scattered command mounted their 
horses and fled at top speed down the Baltimore Pike. They were 
followed at a little distance by a squad of G>nfederates on their 
tired horses for about six miles. 

But the fleeing major and his men did not stop until they met 
some other Federal cavalrymen at Reisterstown, about ten miles 
from Westminster. These fresh troops made a reconnaissance back 
towards Westminster; but the fleeing major himself did not stop 
until at nightfall he had reached the arsenal at Pikesville, some 
twenty miles from where he had started. His alarmist rumor stirred 
General Schenck at his Baltimore headquarters, the home guards 
were called out and manned the fortifications during the night, 
while stringent orders were issued to the civilian population! But 
no Confederates appeared within fifteen miles of the city. 

When Major-General J. E. B. Stuart reached Westminster in 
person all was quiet. He dismounted and engaged in conversation 
with some school-girls, one of whom he kissed, calling her his 
" little prisoner," as she herself related a few years ago in her old 

His men busied themselves with the captured government stores, 
as Westminster was a base of supplies. They were up almost all 
night feeding man and beast, who for the first time in days had a 
bountiful supply of food (at the enemy's expense). Meanwhile 
the advance guard of the Confederates pushed on to Union Mills 
near the Mason and Dixon Line, one of the brigade commanders, 
Fitzhugh Lee, sleeping in an orchard, as reported to the author in 
recent years. 

Meanwhile the Army of the Potomac was advancing on West- 
minster from the direction of Frederick, and the last Confederate 
had scarcely left the town early on fcbe motait^ of June 30, when 



Gregg's Federal cavalry began pouring through the place, soon to 
be followed by a whole army corps. Jeb Stuart had barely been 
able to cross their line of march ahead of them! 

On the morning of June 30 the entire Confederate cavalry force 
passed into Pennsylvania, and Maryland knew them no more until 
after die Bsttk of GeHy^mtg. 


1. For General Lee's statement see Southern Hhtoricd Society Papers, Vol. 

VII, 1879, pp. M5-446. 

2. For definitive life of General Lee see Douglas Smithall Freeman (Vol. 3 

on Gettysburg campaign) . 

3. For biographies of Jeb Stuart see H. B. McCIellan and John W. Thomason, 

Jr. (latter has copy of Jeb Stuart's orders) . 

4. For the capture or the wagon train see Silas Crounse, " A Bold Rebel 

Raid," New York Times, June 30, 1863, p. 1, cols. 3-4. 

5. For the street fight in Westminster see William Shepard Crouse, " Con- 

federate Troops in Westminster," Baltimore Sun, Feb. 23, 1930, sec. 2, 
p. 8, cols. 1-3 (with portrait of Stuart) . 

6. For excitement in Baltimc^e see Sm, 1, 1863, and American, July 1, 



By William D. Hoyt, Jr. 

That Baltimore sent out more privateers during the War of 1812 
than any other American port has long been an established fact.^ 
The outstanding events in the careers of some of these vessels have 
been sketched in various places, and the mere reading of the data 
shows that the private armed schooners from Baltimore did their 
full share of damage to British shipping. It is particularly inter- 
esting, therefore, to examine more closely the journals and log- 
books kept on the individual cruises — papers reposing among the 
collections of the Maryland Historical Society. There is something 
stirring about the thought that these very pages were written on the 
high seas, and they afford intimate glimpses of life aboard the 
privateers such as no second-hand accounts can give. 

In these documents, we see the preparations for the voyages, the 
gathering of the crews, and the actual departures down the Bay. 
We sail over the waves and experience gales and calms, and we 
hear the rattling of the ropes as the ships tack in chase of strange 
sails. We observe the captains as they discipline their men, take 
rich prizes, and fight enemy fleets. We follow them as they weave 
in and out of difficult situations, and we visit foreign ports and 
meet strange people. Especially do we get a wonderful picture of 
the broad sweep of world trade, the great variety of vessels travel- 
ling the seas with all sorts of cargoes. 

The journals themselves present a mixed picture. Some were 
kept in log books provided for the purpose, while others were 
scribbled in any blank leaflets available. Some were kept with 
meticulous care and include an endless number of details as to 
winds, courses, and movements of sail, while others are jotted down 
hurriedly with only occasional mention of physical conditions. Some 
are written by men of obvious training and have distinct literary 
flavor, while others show equally obvious lack of education; and 
one is not in the handwriting of the captain at all, because he signed 

*The actual figures were: Baltimore 58, New York 55, Salem 40, Boston 32, Phila- 
delphia 14, Portsmouth 11, Charleston 10, etc. They are quoted in George Qjggeshall's 
History of American Privateers and Letters-of-Marque, during our War with England 
in the Years 1812, '13 and '14, New York, 1856, p. 422. Mr. John Philips Cranwell, 
who has made a study of shipping in Baltimore during the period, states that there 
were at least 117 private armed vessels sailing from Baltimore or owned by Balti- 
moreans. Many, like the Rolla and Decatur, whose cruises are described below, 
operated out erf other ports beoKise <Jf flie yocksde srotmd tfie mootli of the 




the statement as to the accuraq? of the journal with his mark. Alto- 
gether, they give an amazing cross-sectional view of privateeriag 
activity in the early decades of the nineteenth century. 

1. " Log of Schooner Wasp, 1812," James Taylor, master, on a 
cruise, July l4th-November 19th 1812. 

The record was kept in a blank book ruled and printed with suit- 
able headings: The Seaman's Journal, published by W. Spotswood. 
It pays almost no attention to details of speed, wind, or course, and 
sets down without elaboration the events of the voyage as they 

The Wasp sailed from Baltimore and spent two weeks boarding 
vessels moving along the coast. On August 5th she captured the 
Swedish Ship Continence and, upon finding British papers, took her 
to Charleston for sale. She then headed for the West Indies and 
made two prizes, the British Schooner Sir Eyre Coote, ransomed, 
and the British Schooner Dawson, sent to an American port with 
her cargo of sugar, rum, and coffee. An unpleasant encounter 
with the guns of a Spanish fort at Trinidad in Cuba made re- 
pairs to the foremast necessary, after which the Wasp met gales 
of hurricane force and lost all masts, sails, and rigging. Baffling 
calms followed the storm and rations ran low, so the ship turned 
homewards, reaching Baltimore with the pumps working to offset 
a serious leak. The cruise was not very successful, for few prizes 
were taken and the Wasp herself returned to port much the worse 
for wear. 

2. " Log of Schooner Bona, 1812," John Dameron, master, on 
two cruises, July 20th-September 9th, September 29th-December 20th 

The Bona is the only privateer in this group for which the narra- 
tives of two separate voyages are preserved. The records are entered 
in a regular book for the purpose: Journal of a Voyage, published 
in New York in 1810 and sold by Edmund M. Blunt " At his Navi- 
gation Store, Sign of the Quadrant, No. 202, Water-Street, corner 
of Beekman-Slip." Great care is taken with the details, and from 
them it is possible to observe that the vessel averaged around five 
knots. The captain's handwriting is very poor, and there are many 
instances of bad spelling. 

The Bona sailed from Baltimore and boarded many friendly mer- 
chantmen carrying molasses, rum, flour, etc., but did not sight a 
single enemy vessel. Much time was consumed in practicing the 
guns, trimming the ship, and tweaking tbe sails as if in action. 



There were slight troubles with members o£ the crew, and the ship 
returned to port after only six weeks at sea. The second cruise began 
with gales and rough seas, and the weather was so cold that the 
crew fell ill and became mutinous. A course to the south was set 
and the people recovered their health in the warmer climate, but 
still no prizes were taken. A packet surrendered twenty bags of mail 
which proved to contain nothing of value, and a brig suspected of 
being British property was found to have perfectly regular American 
papers. Finally, a small schooner was captured and manned for the 
United States, only to be recaptured enroute. The Bona returned 
to Baltimore five days before Qiristmas, notably unsuccessful in het 
efforts to harm enemy shipping. 

3. "A Journal of a Cruise in the private armed Schooner America 
Commencing July 23rd 1812, By Jo. Richardson Commander — ," 
July 23rd-November 26th 1812. 

The journal of the America is the most interesting and the best 
writen of all these privateer narratives. Indeed, it has a definite 
literary quality whidi shows especially in the vivid pictures of 
weather conditions and the akaost poetical descriptions of the 
handling of the sails. It is entered in a regular cardboard-backed 
journal book, and it gives a running account free from the impedi- 
menta surrounding the usual observations. It differs from other log 
books, too, in the careful daily listing of the sick members of the 
crew, with details of the various illnesses. Captain Richardson must 
have been an extraordinary man, for throughout his journal there 
are items which reflect an interest in science, a feeling of demo- 
cratic comradeship with his men, a religious devoutness, and a keen 
desire to gather every possible scrap of world news. 

The America sailed from Baltimore and spoke numerous ships 
off the coast, many of which had not heard of the war and received 
their first information concerning it from Captain Richardson. One 
vessel reported the Jamaica fleet far to the eastward, and this being 
beyond reach, the privateer, " with the consent and approbation of 
all my oflicers," turned south towards the West Indies. The Eng- 
lish Schooner Adela with 200 barrels of flour was taken off St. 
Pierre, Martinique, and a prize crew was put aboard to conduct her 
to an American port. Then the English Schooner Intrepid was seized, 
and after some butter, tripe, candles, soap, salmon, and three live 
pigs were removed, the prisoners from the Adela wete loaded onto 
her and she was sent to Haiti for sale. The America visited the 
ports of Aquin, Aux Cayes, and San Juan, and later sighted the St. 
Thomas fleet of 37 sail, but was chased away by the brig acting as 



convoy. Gales and high seas prevented any further captures, and 
the crew was reduced to two-thirds of the regular allowance of pro- 
visions before the ship came to anchor o£F North Point at the con- 
clusion of an unsatisfactory cruise. 

In the back of the journal Captain Richardson listed the men who 
died (3), those who deserted (2), and those who were taken on 
at San Juan (6). He also made a columnar survey of the 28 vessels 
boarded during the cruise, giving the date, name, master, where 
from, where bound, home port, days out, owners' names, and cargo 
of each one. On the last page he put down the titles of his books, 
numbering 33 items in 47 volumes, and including 2 Bibles, 13 re- 
ligious treatises, 2 dictionaries, 1 grammar, some works of general 
literature, and 5 books on navigation. 

4. '" Remarks on board Schooner RoUa James Dooley, Esqre 
Commander," October 31st 1812-January 25th 1813- 

The cruise of the Kolla was one of the group under consideration 
which did not originate in Baltimore. She operated from Long 
Island Sound, and the first few pages are filled with a simple record 
of events while moving from port to port collecting a crew. After 
that, the journal becomes a regular log book, giving in columns the 
data as to knots, course, winds, and remarks. Captain Dooley notes 
with meticulous care every change of course or shift of wind, though 
occasionally he merely comments " variable." The Rolla was ap- 
parently one of the faster privateers, for she often made 12 knots; 
and this may account for her success in making prizes. 

Newport, Fishers Island, New London, Point Judith, Bristol, 
Providence, and Falmouth were the places touched before the Rolla 
set out to sea, and two weeks were spent speaking to various ships 
encountered on the open ocean. The first prize was taken on De- 
cember 5th, the British Lugger Brisk loaded with oranges, and after 
that a streak of good luck resulted in five more captures within a 
brief period. These included the English Schooner Barbara, the Ship 
Mary and the Ship Eliza from Bristol (England) — seized the same 
day, December 12 th — the Brig Barrosa, and the Brig Apollo from 
London. By this time, so many officers and men had been put on 
the prizes that it was thought best to conclude the cruise. Accord- 
ingly, a landing was made at Teneriffe to leave prisoners, and then 
the Rolla headed for Baltimore. The cmise was a comparatively 
short one, but it was extremely profitable, the prize cargoes bringing 
nearly $2,000,000, and the ship herself suffering no damage. 

5. Papers of the private armed Schooner Lawrence, Edward 
Vejtzey, master, February-August 3rd 1814. 



The papers of the Lawrence provide a picture of privateering 
from a different angle. Excerpts of the journal are included, but 
there is no regular log of events during the cruise. What is there 
is a series of original documents tracing the career of what has 
been called " one of the successful privateers of the war." ^ These 
consist largely of letters sent back by Captain Veazey to the Balti- 
more agent for the ship, reporting the captures made, together with 
other letters relating to the subsequent happenings in connection 
with those prizes. In many ways, they give a more completely 
rounded view than the routine records kept on the voyages. 

(1) February 1814: requests from Richard H. Douglass, agent, for seven 
owners (James Bosley, William T. Graham, Charles Gwynn, J. Smith Hol- 
lins, Justus Hoppe, George P. Stevenson, and Joel Vickers) to pay four in- 
stalments of $500 each for demands against the Lawrence; some marked paid. 

(2) February 26th: copy of the commission of the Lawrence, no. 968; 
gives tonnage as 259 tons, armament as 9 carriage guns, and crew as 120 men. 

(3) March 1st: certificates Nos. 68 and 80, showing that Peter Volt and 
Thomas Durham, seamen, were entitled to two shares each of any prizes 
made by the Lawrence if they complied with the articles of agreement; former 
receipted twice on back by John C. King for full proportion of prize money 

for brigs Ceres and Pelican. 

(4) March 2nd: letter from Veazey to Douglass, saying that Mr. Leone 
sent bill for 3000 musket cartridges, but one box shows 355 short so there 
may not be over 2000 in all. 

(5) March 4th: letter of attorney by officers and crew of the Lawrence, 
appointing Douglass attorney and agent for ail at a commission of 3%, 
signed by 114 men (including Veazey), 66 with marks; on back William 
Sterett's oath that he was present and saw the paper signed. 

(6) March 4th: letter from Veazey to Douglass, written in Chesapeake 
Bay and sent back by smack, rq)orting arrival off Potomac and saying they 
may go to sea the next day. " TTie Schooner sails beyond my most sanguine 
expectation. She is in good order for sea." 

(7) April l6th: letter from Veazey to Douglass, sent by the Swedish Ship 
Commarcen loaded with oats and barley for the use of His Majesty's forces 
at Bilboa and captured by the Lawrence; postmarked in Portland, Maine. 

(8) April 19th: letter from Veazey to Douglass, sent by the English Ship 
Ontario laden with wine, salt, and corkwood and captured by the Lawrence; 
reports men '" in high Spirits and in good health." 

(9) April 28th: letter from Veazey to Douglass, written at sea, sending 
an extract from the journal of the Lawrence. [Printed in the Maryland His- 
torical Magazine, III (1908), 171]. 

(9a) April l6th-25th: the extract mentioned above. [Printed in the 
Maryland Historical Magazine, III (1908), 171-76], 

(10) April 22nd-jHne 3rd: canvas-covered journal kept by Isaiah Lewis, 

* Edgar S. Maclay, A History of American Privateers, New York, 189R, p. 430. 



prize master of the Brig Pelican taken to France ; six pages of entries covering 
the events of the trip in and disposition of the craft and cargo. 

(11) May 18th: letter from Veazey to Douglass, describing the seven 
captures already made and listing their cargoes, a complete account to date. 

(12) May 31st: letter from John Clark to Douglass, written from prison 
in Halifax, describing adventures as prize master of the Ship Ontario and its 
recapture by the British Sloop Curlew, 

(13) June 6th: letter from Joseph Thomas to Douglass, written and post- 
marked in Portland, Maine, asking directions what to do with a seaman who 
was captured with a prize, but who helped greatly in getting the prize to 

(14) June 29th: letter from Isaac G. Roberts to Douglass, written and 
postmarked in Portsmouth, N. H., reporting the results of the trials of the 
Lawrence prize cases at York; appends list of appraisals made on 8122 
bushels of barley and 1988 bushels of wheat imported in the Commarcen 
and gives the names of the purchasers. 

(15) Undated: statement of the afiFairs of the prize Commarcen, describ- 
ing the various court proceedings. 

(16) July 1st: letter from Roberts to Douglass, Portsmouth, reporting the 
arrival of the prize master and crew of the English Brig Hope which was 
recaptured by the English Privateer Rolla; mentions six captures made by the 
Lawrence and their fate. 

(17) July 3rd: letter from Veazey to Douglass, written in Porto Rico, 
mailed in Philadelphia, describing the cruise to date and particularly an 
encounter with a large man-of-war. 

(18) July l6th: letter from John A. Morton to Douglass, written in Bor- 
deaux, mailed in New York, discussing the sale of the prize Pelican and 
estimating the probable proceeds at $100,000-120,000; lists current quota- 
tions on coffee, indigo, pepper, sugar, hides, wool, and wine. 

(19) July 19th: bill for |1,375.38 from Samuel and Seward Porter of 
Portland, for disbursements on the prize Ceres and cargo, including discharg- 
ing, wharfage, dockage, duties, and commission of 2^4 %• 

(20) July 30th: letter from Veazey to Douglass, written from Fort John- 
son, N. C., announcing the safe arrival of the Lawrence and sending an ex- 
tract of its journal. 

(20a) March 13th- July 24th: the extract mentioned above, a running 
account of the entire cruise. 

(21) July 30th: letter from James Cunningham, prize master of the Brig 
Hope when it was recaptured, to Douglass, written from New York, asking 
for a further advance of money because travelling is so expensive and he has 
lost all his clothes. 

(22) August 3rd: certificate, dated at Wilmington, N. C, showing that 
Thomas Durham served on board the Lawrence as a seaman and was entitled 
to two shares of all captures made during the first cruise. 

(23) August 3rd: the same kind of certificate for James Clarke, attached 
to a paper appointing Jacob Levy of Wilmington agent to receive Clarke's 
shares, and followed in turn by Levy's designation of John C. King of Balti- 
more to act as Clarke's attorney. 



(24) February- July: account of postage paid on 31 letters concorning the 
Lawrence, showing senders and amounts totalling $15.60l/^. 

(25) February 21st 1815: letter from Samuel Ralston to Douglass, writ- 
ten in Washington, N. C, reporting the arrival at Currituck of a large brig, 
prize to the Lawrence on her second cruise. 

(26) May 1st: letter firom James Hill to Douglass, written from Dart- 
moor Prison and nmiled in Boston, informing Douglass thiCt for £10 ht has 
bought Thomas McLean's share of prize money. 

(27) September 28th 1816: statement of Benjamin S. Davis selling to 
James Hooper for $60 his interest in the Lawrence's prize money. 

6. Papers of the letter of marque Schooner Decatur, George 
Montgomery, master, 1814. 

The papers of the Decatur are not at all complete, and there is 
nothing in the way of a journal of the cruise, but the few scattered 
items do give an idea of some phases of the enterprise. Apparently 
the Decatur sailed from New York, and she certainly sent one prize 
to North Carolina; the conclusion of the voyage is unrecorded here. 
Emphasis is laid on the disposition of one of the captured ships 
rather than on the events as they occurred. 

(1) June 26th 1814: list of agents to whom the Decatur was to consign 
her prizes, sent by Douglass to Montgomery. 

(2) July 1st: power of attorney making Douglass agent for the captain 
and the crew, signed by 31 men, 9 with marks; also signed agreement that 
two-thirds of profits belong to owners, the remainder to be divided with the 
captain receiving 16 shares, first lieutenant 9, second lieutenant 7, boatswain 
3, carpenter 3, gunner 3, cook 2, steward 2, boy 1, and seamen each 2, with 
8 shares reserved for the most deserving of the crew according to the cap- 
tain's judgment; on back statement by John S. Bogert of New York that 
these papers were made and executed in his of&ce. 

(3) August 31st: letter from Montgomery to Douglas, reporting the cap- 
ture of the British Brig William from Senegal laden with gum. 

(4) August 31st: letter from Samuel Dorsey (not in list of crew) to 
William Douglass, telling of the capture of the William. 

(5) November 18th: list or roll of the Decatur's aew, certified by 
Gerardus Clark of New York, " the said Crew having been enrolled at my 

(5a) December 1st: copy of the above list or roll, certified by John Gill 
of Baltimore. 

(6) March 13th 1815: letter from Stephen Pleasanton to William Doug- 
lass, written in Washington, asking for power of attorney and certificate of 
ownership of the Decatur. 

(7) May 22nd: statement of distribution of proceeds from the William; 
total $7,778.53, of which the owners took |5,185.69, the remaining $2,592.84 
distributed as agreed with the shares for the worthy man awarded to William 



(8) November 6th: letter from William Dunn to Messrs. R. and W. 
Douglass, written in Newbern, N. C, concerning one Bear's claims against 
the Decatur; on back gives current quotations on tar, turpentine, corn, and 
cotton, adding that " every Description of our produce is high." 

7. " Private Armed Schr Kemp of Baltimore Joseph Almeda 
Esqre Commander from Wilmington NC on a Cruise," November 
29th 1814-March 30th 1815. 

The journal of the Kemp devotes an entire page to each day of 
the cruise except for a summary of the time spent making repairs 
between December 25th and January 15th. The hours, knots, 
courses, and winds are all recorded, and the latitude is carefully 
noted at the end of every day. The handwriting is evidently not 
that of the captain, for the sworn statement of the accuracy of the 
account is signed with his mark. 

The Kemp sailed from Wilmington, N. C, and almost imme- 
diately came up with a fleet of seven sail. Four were captured on 
December 3rd after a brief engagement, and the Kemp returned to 
port to land prisoners. One of the prizes, the Ship Rosella, worth 
$180,000, grounded on the way in and was lost, but the three others 
arrived safely." Six weeks were spent cruising along the coast and 
making repairs, and then the Leeward Islands became the center 
of much profitable activity. The English Packet Lady Mary Pelham, 
a fine new brig, was captured on February 9th after forty minutes' 
warm action. February 20th saw the taking of two more vessels: 
the British Schooners Yankee Lass (formerly an American privateer) 
and Resolution, both laden with sugar, molasses, and rum. The 
English Sloop Mudian Lass was the next victim, and the Ship Ottawa, 
bound from Liverpool to Jamaica with dry goods, proved to be a 
valuable prize. A stop was made at Santo Domingo, and the Kemp 
sailed leisurely past Cuba and up the coast to Baltimore. Her cruise 
was extremely successful and it doubtless gave bountiful returns to 
all concerned. 

8. " Journal of Private Armed Brig Chasseur. Thos Boyle. Com. 
from New York on a Cruise," December 23rd 1814-March 17th 

[Printed in the Maryland Historical Magazine, I (1906), 168-80, 


The Chasseur was the most famous of the Baltimore privateers. 
She was generally regarded as one of the best equipped and manned 

'Niles' Weekly Register (Baltimore) for January 7th 1815, VII, 293, gave an 
account of these captures with extracts from the journal of the Kemp. It concluded, 
" N.B. The prizes ate large and valuable, loaded with coffee chiefly." 


privateers in the war, and a Baltimore newspaper spoke of her as 
" perhaps, the most beautiful vessel that ever floated on the ocean." 
Her master, Captain Boyle, had established an enviable reputation 
in his previous command, the Comet, and he proceeded to set a real 
record in this new ship. She returned from her European cmise in 
October, 1814, and just two months later started off again to try 
her luck in West Indian waters. The journal of this voyage is set 
down in a canvas-backed blank book, and there are many details of 
the courses, the winds, and the handling of the sails. One particu- 
larly noticeable feature is the destruction of many of the ships 
taken — a practice not often followed by the privateers included in 
this survey. 

The Chasseur sailed from New York and went all the way to 
Barbados before beginning her activities. The Schooner Elizabeth 
was captured and burned while several vessels were chasing the 
Chasseur off Bridgetown. Then the Sloops Eclipse and Mary of 
Bequia were pursued and sunk near St. Vincents. Several British 
men of war gave chase in the neighborhood of St. Lucia, and on 
one occasion it was necessary for the Chasseur to heave overboard 
some of her armament and spare spars in order to draw away. The 
merchant Ship Corunna, bound from London to Granada with coal 
and articles of hardware, was caught and sent to the United States 
with a prize crew. The London convoy of 110 sail was sighted on 
February 3rd, but the frigate protecting the fleet chased the Balti- 
morean twice until she lost sight entirely. The Ship Adventure, 
bound from London to Havana with iron work, was the next cap- 
ture sent to an American port, while the Jamaica Ketch Martin was 
burned after her provisions had been removed. The Mary and 
Susanna was taken and put in charge of a prize crew, and then on 
February 27th took place the heroic battle with H. M. S. St. Lawrence, 
which has been described and pictured in many places.* Soon there- 
after a passing ship brought news that peace had been signed, so 
the Chasseur made all sail for the Qiesapeake and Baltimore after 
a truly remarkable cruise. 

9. " Journal of the Xebec Ultor on her Second Cruse from New 
York James Mathews Comd.," . . . January 20th-April 4th 1815. . . . 

The record of the Ultor's cruise is written on paper ruled by 
pencil, and the entire first and last portions are missing. There are 

occasional gaps in the entries, as from February 5th-10th and March 
5th-llth; probably there was nothing worth putting down for those 

'The encounter with the St. Lawrence is discussed in detail in Maclay, pp. 295-300, 
»nd in Theodore Roosevelt's The Naval W^ar of 1812, New Yotk, 1901, pp. 415-16. 



days. The Ultor differed from the other privateers in that it resem- 
bled the long, low, lateen-rigged vessels used by the Mediterranean 

The Ultor operated almost entirely in the Leeward Islands, and 
it was near Montserrat and Antigua that she captured and burned 
the British Birgs ]ohn and Maria Annabella. The English Sloop 
Constitution met the same fate off Guadeloupe, and then the Ultor 
proceeded to Santo Domingo waters. The Ship Ann of Liverpool 
with a cargo of mahogany was seized three or four miles from shore 
and ordered to the United States, and the Brig Mohawk was taken 
in the Bay of Neyva and ransomed for three thousand Spanish 
milled dollars. Spanish, Swedish, Hamburg, Peruvian, and Cartha- 
genian craft were among those chased and boarded before an Ameri- 
can merchantman told her commander of the proclamation of peace, 
and the Ultor headed north for Baltimore. 

The Johns Hopkins University. 



By H. T. Cory 

At least five Hawleys played important roles in the development 
of the Maryland and Virginia colonies prior to 1650 and some revi- 
sions of heretofore accepted data concerning some of them are 
necessary in the light of facts which have recently come to the 
writer's hands. 

One James Hawley lived in Boston near Brentford, County Mid- 
dlesex, England, from 1558 to his death in September, 1622. His 
ancestral line is given in The Hawley Record ^ as John 1 ; William 
2 ; and John 3 of Auler, County Somerset, the latter being the first 
of the family to settle in that country. He married Dorothy, sister 
of William Walnot of Shopwick. His second son, Jeremy 4, of 
Boston near Brentwood, County Middlesex, who died in 1593, had 
as his wife Rynburgh, daughter of Valentine Saunders, of Sutton 
Court, County Middlesex, Rynburgh dying in February, 1575. They 
had several children, one being James 5. 

This James 5 was born at Boston 1558 and died there September 
1622. His first wife was Susanna, daughter of Richard TothiU of 
Amersham. She died in l6lO. His second wife was Elizabeth 
Burnell and she died in 1621. By his first wife, he had five sons 
and three daughters and by his second wife, three sons. At least 
five of these children came to America. 

Probably the oldest son was Jeremy, more usually called Jerome, 
who was born in 1580. His first wife was a Miss Hawkins by whom 
he had at least three children: Robert, Gabriel, and Judith. His 
second wife was Elinor de Courtney, widow of Thomas and mother 
of Sir William De Courtney,^ who long survived him and by whom 
he apparently had no issue. He evidently was a dashing courtier, 
lived extravagantly, gambled for high stakes, especially later in life, 
and was a gentleman in waiting at the Court of Henrietta Maria, 
daughter of Henry IV of France and who in May, 1625, married 
Charles I of England. Many things indicate that there was a close 
friendship between him and George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, and 
probably also with George's brother, Leonard. He took an eighth 
interest in Calvert's Maryland project and was one of the three 
commissioners assisting Leonard Calvert in the " Ark " and 

^ Elias S. Hawley, The Hauley Record. Buffalo, N. Y., E. H. Hutchinson & Co., 
1890, p. ix f. 

' Archives of Maryland, Vol. X, p. 444. 



" Dove " expedition and first settlement of Maryland in 1633-4; 
the other two commissioners being Thomas Cornwallis and John 
Lewger. On January 10, 1636/7, possibly on George Calvert's 
recommendation, Jerome was appointed by Charles I as treasurer of 
Virginia, which post he held until his death about July, 1638. 

The second of James's sons was Henry who was for many years 
governor of Barbadoes, dying there June 8, 1679, as did his wife 
Jane, May 11, 1678. Apparently be also visited Virginia and 

The third of James's sons was Capt. William who acted as deputy 
governor of Barbadoes for several months while his brother Henry 
was away on a leave of absence. He was in Virginia as early as 
1644 and was deputy governor of the Carolinas in 1645. For him 
was surveyed St. Jerome's Manor of 2100 acres in St. Mary's 
County, Maryland, January 15, 1648. He signed the Protestant 
Declaration there in 1650 and died in 1654. His will disappeared 
shortly after his death and its provisions are yet unknown. 

The fourth of James's sons was James who is said to have died 
without posterity in England in 1667. It is generally understood he 
never came to America but he supplied much financial backing to his 
brother Jerome's Maryland venture. Whether because of Jerome's 
high living or events in the Maryland Colony, James probably was 
never fully repaid his advances or investments as on July 30, 1649, 
he wrote his brother William, hereinabove mentioned, a letter dated 
Brentford, Middlesex County, in which he stated that Jerome's 
estate owed him, James, substantial sums. He asked William to do 
all possible to collect from Thomas Cornwallis large amounts 
which James felt had been withheld from Jerome's estate.^ 

The fifth son of James, by his second wife, Valentine, went to the 
Barbadoes. A daughter, Susanna, also by James's second wife, who 
married Sir Richard Pier, also went to the Barbadoes. Lastly, 
another son, but by James's first wife, Gabriel, possibly came to 
America also. The uncertainty is due to there having been two 
contemporary Gabriel Hawleys in the immediate clan under con- 

Sherwood* gives the following: 

In the Records of the Draper's Company, London . . . I6l6, January 22. 

Hawley, Gabriel, son of James of Btainford (Brentford), Middle- 
sex, " generosus," apprenticed to 

= E. D. Neill, The Founders of Maryland, Albany, N. Y., Munsell, 1876, pp. 82-5. 

* George F. T. Sherwood, American Colonists in English Records, London, 1933, 1st 
Series, p. 23 and 2* Series, p. 103. 


Pavier, William, for 9 years. 

Free of the Company 6 July, 1636. On 11 July, 1636, 

takes apprentice 
BoROUGHES, John. Note in 1636/42 Book: " in Virginia." 

In the Public Record Office, London. Delegates ExamiiKttictti. vol. 2. 
Baltimore v. Leonards. 

A. D. 

1635 Hawley, Gabriel, of London, Gent., aged 34, has lived there 5 
years; before that in Virginia 10 months; and before that 
in London 5 years or more, (signs) 

Baltimore, Lord, his house at the Upper end of Holborn; his 
brother and partner 

Leonards, Leonard, loaded into "The Ark" sailing to Maryland in 
Sept. 1633, divers tonnes of beer to the use of Lord 
Baltimore. There were three or four joined as partners 
in the said ship and her pinnace " The Dove." 

Hally, Mr. Jerome, a partner in "' The Ark," had an eighth part. 

Halley, Gabriel, did bespeak and provide beer and victuals for the 

Calvert, Captain Leonard, partner in the pinnace. 
CoRNWALLYS, Mr. Thomas, ditto. 

Sandes or Saunders, Mr. John, ditto. 

Boulter, John, citizen & skinner of London, of St. Batolph, Aid- 
gate, aged 40; has lived there 3 years, and before that for 
12 years in the East Indies. Was purser and steward of 
the ship for the said voyage under the Lord BALTIMORE." 

Incidentally note the three spellings of Hawley-Hally-Halley in 
the last quotation. 

These two records in connection with the fact that Gabriel Hawley 
was surveyor general of Virginia until that post was filled, probably 
on the death of the incumbent, by Robert Evelyn in 1637, clearly 
show there were two Gabriel Hawleys contemporaneously playing 
parts in the Virginia-Maryland colonial ventures. 

One of these, a son of James Hawley and his first wife Susannah 
Tothill (Tuttle?) was in London as an apprentice of William Pavier 
for nine years prior to July 6, 1936. He probably was born about 
1609. Another, born in I6OI, spent ten months in Virginia from 
1629 to 1630, and had a significant part in the Ark and Dove expedi- 
tion. Doubtless it wa? the latter who for some time prior to and until 
1637 was surveyor general of Virginia. 

The writer has just ascertained the identity of this second Gabriel 
from Mrs. J. Stanford Halley of Corsicana, Texas, who for years 
has been compiling genealogical data of the Halleys in America. 
About 1915 Mrs. Halley learned from Mr. J. M. Halley of Mc- 



Gregor, Texas, of a Halley record in the possession of a Mr. Samuel 
Halley then living in a suburb of Macon, Georgia. Accordingly she 
had Rev. J. G. Moreton, a retired Baptist minister and indefatigable 
worker in genealogical matters, visit Macon to copy the said records. 

Mr. Samuel Halley, then 77 years old, absolutely refused the sug- 
gestion of Mr. Moreton that the record should be placed in some 
historical collection for preservation in a fire-proof building. How- 
ever, pennission was gladly given to copy it in full. This Mr. 
Moreton did, and most fortunately, as a year later Mr. Samuel 
Halley's house burned and with it the record, while a year later the 
old gentleman died. 

Mrs. J. Stanford Halley, like many other genealogists, has not yet 
completed for publication her record of the Halleys in America, and 
just now is deeply occupied with dvic work. So she has loaned me 
for preparation of this paper, the report made to her in 1916 by the 
Rev. J. G. Moreton of the aforesaid record. 

I quote it in full: 

Item 1 — . . . Thms Halley . . . Ludburgh ... 15 ... to .. . 

(Note — I thought this to be a birth record or marriage. The date 
appeared to be 1530 or 1538 or 1550. The first numerals were 
fairly distinct.) 

Item 2 — Jeromie Hawley . . . life ye 17th (or 19th) day . . . l6 . . . 

(Evidently a death record. Note that one date was 1500, the 
other 1600. The writing is the same so evidently copied for a 
purpose, probably to be used in the book. " departed this " I think 
were the absent words.) 

Item 3 — ^Wm and Thms Hawley declaired of . . . protesting faiths . . . 

and signers . . . thereof ... ye ... 16 .. . 
(Please note the different spellings of the name.) 
Item 4 — Thms Haley and clerk Francis Walford Staffordshire with . . . 

cousin Sara Hawley with ... to the number of twenty souls . . . 

with familys and indentured servants ... in province of Maryland 

. . . Enterprise . . . 

(Note — ^The word after Sara Hawley looks more like " wife " 

than " with." This appears that Thomas was transporting colonists. 

There is no date, but the name of the boat or ship, might help you. 

Note the spelling of the cousins' names.) 

Item 5 — . . . Haley to E. Bunche (or Burche) 

(Note — ^No date to this record. It seems rather abrupt.) 

Item 6 — Thomas Halley to Elizabeth Burche (or Bunche?) wid w/2 1728 
(or 23) with . . . children 

(Note — ^Underneath this is the name of John Hally and another 
not distinct enough to read. The writing is different — it seems to 
be a marriage record but could have been a transfer of property. If 
the latter, it seems odd that it was en m:md in this bode.) 


There were a number of other names without dates. I do not know why 
they were recorded. The writing was indistinct but we satisfied ourselves 
that they were correct. It is not unreasonable to suppose that some were 
births or deaths copied from memory, from a prayer book or Bible. At the 
end of the book is a notation that the " Holy Evangels " was " consumed 
in the flames." It does not record when or where. The names are 1 & 2 
Jerry and Omy, twins, 3. James Hawley, 4. Jeromy Hally, 5. Gabriel 
Hally, 6. Clemmie Hally, 7. Jerimy Halley (Jeremy is spelled with an "i" 
this time), 8. Daniel Holly, 9. John S. Hally, 10. Henry L (or S) Hally, 
11. William Hally, 12. William Hally, 13. Edward Hally. (Note— Please 
note that the spelling seemed to take the form Hally and keep it until the 
last record which follows, then the E is inserted. In regard to the above, I 
believe that after the burning of the Bible some member of the family tried 
to write the records from memory. The dates were forgotten but the names 
remembered. This book seemed to take the place of the records, because 
the last pages contain the complete record of later families whose Bible 
are extant. You have those last records. I shall not send them at this time. 
They include Nathaniel, Dr. Samuel's and Henry S. Halley and Elizabeth, 
and names of the slaves and births of each.) 

Item 7 — ^John Halley to Eli2abeth Price wid'r with two children Jan. 31, (?) 
177 — England. 

(Note — I tried to get the place in England — even used sc hot 
iron on it to bring out the ink more clearly but no lettering appeared 
before the word " England." The date should be 1770. If this is a 
marriage record, we may presume that other like records are marriage 

Item 1 is evidently the record of the marriage of Jeremy Thomas 
Havi'ley to Rudburgh or Rynburgh Saunders about 1550, the grand- 
parents of the brothers and sisters hereinbefore mentioned who came 
to America. Item 6 is plainly the genealogical line of descent for 
twelve generations. 

The point of general historical as distinct from family interest is 
that the Jerome Hawley, partner of Lord Baltimore in the Maryland 
Province project, including the Ark and the Dove had a son Gabriel 
and grandson Clement. 

Evidently this son Gabriel was the second Gabriel mentioned in 
the English records quoted, the other being the son of James and 
Susannah Tothill and brother of Commissioner Jerome Hawley. 
Also, incidentally, it may be noted that Clement Haly who died at 
Chaptico, St. Mary's Co. in 1695 was Jerome's grandson. 

Finally, we conclude that the Gabriel Hawley who was surveyor 
general of Virginia for some time prior to 1637 was the son and not 
the brother of Jerome Hawley, the treasurer of Virginia from 
January 1637 to his death July, 1638, and probably that this son's 
death antedated that of the father. 

(Continued from Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. XXXIII, 4, p. 388.) 


I shall Ship you in your Ship the Betsey Captain Love seven Tons 
of Barr Iron Please to make Insurance for me on Her from Wye to 
the Port of London that in Case of Loss I may Draw one Hundred 
Pounds Clear of all Charges 

I am Sir Y' most H^e Serv* 

C. C. 

Annapolis Maryland ) 

July 19*'* 1764 J 

^ Cap* John Johnston sent w*^ M"^ Dick's Letters 
^ Capt Goundell in the munificience Sent I Gentleman at 
Doctor Steuarts 


Inclosed I send Car* of the seven Tons of Bar on Board of Love 
Being Plantation Made 

I am Sir Yr mo H^'^^ Serv* 
Annapolis July 19 1764 C. C. 

To M"^ William Anderson 
Merch* in London 


I shall Ship you in your Ship the Albion Captain Spencer now in 
Chester River Ten Tons of Pig and Eight Tons of Barr Iron I 
Desire you will make Insurance for me on the said Vessell while in 

the said River and thence to your Port of Bristol that in Case of Loss 
I may Draw one Hundred and Seventy pounds Clear of all Charges 

I am Gentlemen your most H^^^ Serv* 

C C. 

Annapolis Maryland Septem' ) 
11*^1764 \ 
To Mess^^ Sedgeley Hillhouse 
and Company merchants in Bristol 
^ Zachariah Hood in HarKk ) 
^ Captain Lane J 
Copy Given M"" Rob* Lloyd to send 
Copy ^ Cock 




Dear Sir 

Yours of the 50^^ March Last I Received and all the Goods sent 
by Love Safe and Good The Tea Indeed Peggy Does not think the 
best for the Price Please by the first of your Ships Convenient to send 
me the Contents of the Inclosed Invoice I send you Inclosed the first 
of our Province Bills for £966.. 0.. 9 with which as I suppose it 
must be Good Please to Credit my Account I have but Just time to 
Close my Letter by Johnson by some of the next Ships I shall send 
you a Further Invoice and write more fully Pray our Kind Compli- 
ments to all yours 

I am Dear Sir M** h^e Serv* 

C. Carroll 

Annapolis Maryland ) 
October 2d 1764 | 
To Mr William Anderson ) 
Merchant in London J 
^ Capt. Johnston 

Invoice of Goods sent Inclosed in a Letter to M^ 'Williani Ander- 
son Merchant in London Dated the 2"^ of October 1764 

58 yards of Substantial Silk and worsted Crimson Damask for window 
Curtains for a Dining Room @ about 8/ ^ yard and one hundred 
and Sixty Eight yards of Proper Binding of same Colour 

29 yards of Green worsted Damask for Curtains for a Common Parlour. 

84 yards of Proper Binding of the same Colour. 
2 Neat Mahogany Chest of Drawers. 

6 Carpet Bottom Mahogany framed Chairs about 15/ ^ for Bed Chamber 
6 Strong Ditto about Ditto Black Leather Bottoms for a Parlour. And two 

Arm Chairs of the same Sort. 
A Large Easy Arm Chair well Stuffed in the seat Back and Sides Covered 

with Common Stuff Damask and a Cushion 
A pair of End Irons Brass Knobbed with a fire shovel and Tongs and 

pair of Bellows for a Bed Chamber made Strong. 
2 pieces 24 yards in Each of Cotton for a Bed & Curtains of a white Ground 

and Lively Colours 
one Silver Bread server or waiter to suit a small Company about 8 or 10 

Persons fashionable Light and Handy I have seen them in the fashion 

of Fruit Baskets or Sea Shells 
one Black Shagreen Case with a Dozen Silver Handled Table Knives and 

Forks and one Do2en Spoons 
one Ditto Case with a Dozen Silver Handled Desert Knives and Forks 

and a Dozen Desert or Custard spoons, 
one Plain Silver three Pint Chocolate Pot. 

one Cream Pot of middle size I suppose the Fashion to be Chased, 
one sraAll Silver waiter about 10 ounces. 



my Crest or the same Coat as was Cut for Peggys Seal to be put on the 

Plate or if the Coat be Lost put mine 
Sir William Temples works 4 vol^ Octavo 
Lord Shaftsburys works in four vol^ Containing his Letters. 
Lord Molesworths History of Denmark 
And Bishop Robinsons Account of Sweden 
Polnitys Memoirs. 

Keatings History of Ireland or the best Irish History Published 

About 20/ of the Best Political & other pamphlets yearly Especially fh(»e 

that Relate to the Colonies 
4 pair of Crimson Silk and worsted Damask window Curtains for 4 Large 

windows two Curtains to a window Each Curtain two Breadths wide 

and 21/2 yards and three Inches in Length. 
2 pair of Ditto Curtains for two End windows of the same Length with 

only a Breadth and Half in Each all Lined with thin Durants or 

Lammy of same Colour as may be nece^ry as our suns may spoil 


2 pair of Green worsted Damask window Curtains for two Large Parlour 
windows Each Curtain two Breadths wide and two yards and a Half 
and three Inches Long. 

one Single Ditto Curtain two Breadths wide and same Length with 
former for an End window these Green worsted 1 think need not be 
Laced all the Curtains to be Properly bound Round with Binding of 
same Colour and to be Quilled at Top 

These Articles wrote for instead of the Stuff and materials for window 
Curtains Mentioned in the beginning of this Invoice 


I had an Account Delivered to me this year by M'^ Simm Dated 
November the first 1763 very Different from that sent me in by you 
Last year Dated Aug^* 10*^' 1763 in which the Ballance Due you 
was only one Hundred and Sixty five Pounds Seven Shillings and 
two pence But by this Delivered by M'' Simm you make by Charging 
Interest the Ballance to be two hundred and Seventeen pounds three 
shillings and Eight pence The Charge of Interest I Look upon not to 
be just as I had always Pigg and Barr Iron Ready to Ship you to 
make Remittance as I Promised and made offers Both to M'' Franklin 
and Captain Bell but your Ships would not take it in And I Cant 
Help besides Reminding you How much I was a Loser by your 
Keeping my Iron so Long by you and selling it at Last for a 
Lower Price than it would have Brought the year you Received it. 
I have besides no Credit for the five Tons of Pigg and five Tons of 
Barr Shipped you Last year in Your Ship the Unity Captain Wats. 
After you have given me Credit By the Proceeds of that Iron and 
struck out the Interest Charged in Your Account of the 1** of 



November and altered it agreeable to that of the 10*^^ of August 
1763 which I hope you will think Just I will Remit you Effects to 
Discharge what Ballance may Remain Due to you i£ you will give 
me Room in any of your Ships or I will Immediately Do the same by 
Bills of Exchange and shall with Pleasure send you Effects and 
Carry on«a Gjrre^ondence when Ever opportunity offers 

I am Gentlemen your mo h^e Serv* 

C. Carroll 

Annapolis October 2'^ 1764 
To Anthony Bacon Esq"" 
and Company mercht^ 
in London 
f Capt. Cock 1 
^ Capt. Curling / 

An Additional Invoice of Goods sent inclosed in a Letter to 
William Anderson Merchant in London Dated the 4^^ October 1764 

7lb Green Tea @ 14/ ^ 

2lb Hyson Ditto @ 18/ ^ 

7 Loaves of Double refined Sugar 
7 Ditto of Single Ditto 

Mace 4 ounces 

Cinamon 6 ounces 

Nutmegs 4 ounces 

Cloves 4 ounces 

one womans Hunting Saddle of the Large Easy Sort of Green Cloth with 
a Strong but narrow Gold Binding or Trimming on the Cover and 
proper Furniture v/^^ Bridle Suitable 

2 Widcer Baskets Lined with Tin one open Down the Sides for Carry- 

ing Clean Plates the other Close for fowl and one for Knives 
12 Packs of Playing Cards 

3 Dozen Bottles of Fresh Pyrmont water in Quart Bottles or what they 

Call Half Bottles. 

3 Dozen fresh German Spaw water 

lib best Jesuit Bark Powdered and Qose Packed. 

2 Gallons Best Lamp Spirit for Tea Kettle in pint Bottles well Stopped. 

1 Dozen best shaving wash Balls not much perfumed. 

Silk and Cotton Binding for the two pieces Cotton wrote for, for Bed 
and Curtains. 

one Plain Green Silk waistcoat for myself of Corded Green Silk not made 

too Short. Eccleston has my Measure. 
Set of Table China as follows viz. 

2 Large enamald China Dishes 

4 Ditto a Size Less 

2 Ditto the next Size 
4 Ditto of the Least. 



1 Middling Sized Soup Dish 

3 Dozen enamald Plates to suit the Dishes 

2 Dozen Soup Ditto 
2 Sallad Dishes 

2 Bowls or Pudding Dishes 
6 Saucers or shells for Pickles 

1 Dozen Nankeen Bread and Butter or Breakfast Plates 

1 Dozen very fine Damask Napkins 

2 % Damask Table Cloths 
6 % Diaper Table Cloths 
6 % Ditto Ditto 

1 piece of Course White Dowlass 

1 folio family Bible Red or blue Cover Strong Paper Gilt 

2 Prayer Books Blue Covers Gilt in octavo 

1 piece of Brocade with white ground and Lively Colours that will Cost 
about 15/ ^ yard made up in a negligee and CcMit or any other 
Garment is more fashionable 

1 piece of point Lace Lappits 
a Silk and Gold Hounce to Trim the Coat and Side of a French Robe 

3 % yards broad Silk and Gold nett Lace 
10 yards of narrow Ditto 

1 piece 8 or 10 yards fine Cotton Stamp'd with Lively Colours 

1 piece fine Lawn 

2 Gause Caps. 8 yards of Rich flowered Gause 

6 pair womcns best Kid Gloves. 6 pair Ditto mitts 

4 pair Ditto fine India Cotton Hose 
2 pair Ditto thread Ditto 

3m best midling pins and 3m short white Ditto. 
3m Lilykin Ditto 

Dear Sir 

Inclosed I send you the Third of out Province Bttls for Nine 
Hundred and Sixty six pounds and nine pence with a copy of my 
Invoice sent by Johnston and an additional one to that for my own 

We think it Better to have the Crimson Silk and worsted Damask 
and the Green worsted Damask window Curtains made up with 
you so have in this Article altered from the first Invoice sent 
and wrote for the Curtains instead of the Stuff and materials 
By the advice of our Physicians I must Call in the Assistance of 
the Pyrmont and German Spaw waters to subdue my Inveterate 
Enemy the fever and ague So I have this year wrote for some, 
they must be Quite fresh and Genuine and as little adulterated 
as Possible with the spirite of Sulphur or vetriol which they put 
in to make them Clear and Smart or they will not do for me. I 
shall take it as a favour if you will give this in Charge to the Person 
from whom you get them, if there should be a Fresh and Good Im- 



portation of them at times and Convenient opportunity should offer 
I shall be Glad if at times you will send me two or three Dozen I 
suppose I shall use about Eight or Ten Dozen a year, I write for the 
Pyrmont in Half Bottles for if it Comes in two Quart Bottles if not 
Drank out Quick it will grow Dead. I shall be obliged if you^ Direct 
your Book seller (I hope he is a man of Taste) to send me in 
yearly about 15 or 20 Shillings of the Best Political and other 
Pamphlets Especially any that Relate to the Interest and Circum- 
stances of the Colonies or the monthly Reviews but none of Religious 
Controversy it is some Amusement to Learn from your authors and 
their works of wit how things Pass with you he may forward them 
as opportunity offers The womans Saddle I write for must have a 
Housing to it must be made Strong as our Servants here are Careless 
I in Close a letter from Peggy to her Cousin I most Sincerely wish 
you all well and am 

Dear Sir your most humble Servant 

C. Carroll 

Annapolis October 4^^ 1764 

P. S. I shall not want any Valens to the Curtains wrote for 

To Mr William Anderson 1 
Merchant in London / 

^ Captain Cock ) 

^ Cap* Curling ) 


I wrote you of the 13*^^ of May Last to send me a Lady's Velvet 
Large Cloak or Cardinal of a Fashionable Colour and Lined with 
Shag or fur as it was for winter wear, if you have not already sent it 
Please to send it with my Goods ordered this year 

Add Likewise to them four Pounds Best fig Blue Send also the 
Contents of the Inclosed Invoice for my Proportion of Goods for 
the Baltimore Ccanpany. 

I am Sir your M h^e Serv* 

C. Carroll 

Annapolis October 5*^ 1764 
To M"^ William Anderson > 
Merchant in London ) 
^ Captain Cock 



Please when you send the Goods I wrote for this year Both for 
my own use and those I wrote for for my Proportion for the Balti- 
more Company to make Insurance on them So that in Case of Loss 
I may Draw the Principal and all Charges if Ever I should write 
for any Parcels of Goods above twenty or thirty Pounds and should 
forget the ordering Insurance on them be pleased to make it in the 
above form 

I am ^ ymt most H^^« Sot* 

Annapolis Maryland 1 C Carroll 

October 6*^ 1764 j 
To Mr William Anderson 
Merchant in London 
Captain Cock 
^ Capt. Curling 

Irish Linen 













2/ . 




Invoice of Goods for the Baltimore Works sent inclosed in a 
Letter to M"" Anderson Merch* in London Dated October S*'' 

700 Ells best osnabrigs 
2 pieces 
2 pieces 

2 pieces 
1 piece 
1 piece 
1 piece 

3 pieces Check 
3 piece Roles 

1 piece Brown holland 

2 pieces Stript duffel 

3 pieces white Kersey 
1 piece Welsh Cotton 

1/2 Dozen yarn Rugs 

7 piece blue German Serge @ 5/ 
Shalloon and Twist for Ditto 

6 Dozen Camp blue Coat and ] t> ij. 
12 Dozen Ditto Ditto vest } muttons 

6 pieces Shallon diflferent Colonrs 
20 m lOd) , „. ., 

15 m 20dj ™ ^ "^''^ 

1 Dozen Large Smiths files 

1 Dozen X Cut Saw files 

1 Dozen Whip Saw Ditto 

1 Dozen Hand Saw Ditto 

1 Dozen Augers sorted 

1 Dozen Sail needles 



1 Gross Curby fish hooks 

1 Dozen frying Pans 

1/2 Doz. Carpenters 2 foot Rules 

2 Doz. mens shoes 

1 Doz. womens Ditto 

2 Reams uncut writing Paper 
2 Reams Cut Ditto 

1 Doz. Ink Powder 

2 Dozen Quart white Stone Muggs 

2 Doz. pint Do 
1 Doz. 1/2 pint Do 
1 Doz. Stone Pitchers 

3 Doz. Narrow Mouth Stone Jugs sorted 
6, 2 Quart Delf Bowls 

6, 3 pint Ditto 

1 Doz. Shallow delf Plates 

1 Doz. Soup Ditto 

4 Doz. Butter Pots (sorted) 
1 Doz. Shoe Brushes 

1 Doz. horn Combs 

2 Doz. Ivory Ditto 

2 Doz. bed Cords 

3 Doz. hair Sieves 
2 faggots English) 

2t Blistered ] ^^^^^ 
6 Large Bull Hides oiled but not Curried) 
fit for Furnace Bellows \ 
30 mens fearnaught Pea Jackets 
2 pieces Drugget 
12 Doz. vest and 6 Dozen Coat 
Buttons with Twist for Ditto 

5 yards fine broad Cloth) ^.^ _ , 

5 yards Ditto @ 12/ \ different Colours » 

with Shalloon and other Trimmings Suitable ) 

This Invoice about £160-0-0 

Invoice of Goods sent Inclosed in a Letter To Mess^ Sedgley 


Hilhouse and Company Merchants at Bristol marked )|( and Dated 
the October 1764— 

7 pieces Best osnabrigs 

1 piece Best Sprig Linen 

6 pieces Brown Rolls or Craws 

2 pieces Dowlas 

1 piece Irish Shirting Linen yard wide @ 5/ ^ 

2 pieces yard wide Cotton Chex 

1 piece of Birds Eyed Hankerchief s or other Linen or Cotton @ abo* 8^ ^ 
i piece Sheeting Linen @ about 5/6^ ^ yard 
1 piece Do Do about 2/^ ^ yard 



1 piece Cloth Coloured Kersey and Suitable Trimings for Ditto 
1 piece Grey Fearnought 

1 piece Coloured Ditto 

2 pieces Blue Half thick 
500 yards best Welsh Cotton 

1 piece Match Coat Blanketting 

2 Doz. Torrington Ruggs about ^J6^ ^ 
4 Broad axes 

2 Hand Saws 6 whip saw files 
6 X Cut Saw 6 Hand saw Ditto 
6 Large strong frying Pans Good Long Handles 
20 m 10^ nails and 10 m 20^ Ditto 
4 pair of wool Cards 
6 Good Comon Stock Locks 
6 Strong best Padlocks 
6 Ditto Cheaper Sort 
2 Faggots English Steel 
1 Bundle Blistered Ditto 
6 Curry Combs and 6 Brushes 
1 Doz. Mens Coarse Felt Hats 

1 Doz. Ditto Finer 

14 (y of Double E F. F. Gun powder 
50 lb of Drop "l "l 

40 of Bristol pShot r 
10 Goose J J 
25 tbBrim Stone 

6 Mop Heads 

6 Scrubbing Brush Heads 

6 Broom Ditto 

6 Hair Seives 

2 Doz. mens Double worsted Caps 

1 Doz. womens blue yarn Hose 

2 Best Flanders Bed Ticks Bolsters and Pillows 

150 Grey Flag Stones for Paving Passages I think they are 18 Inches square 
and Come in at 3/ ^ yard they must be thick and strong as they are 
for an outside Piazza — 

2 Dozen Scythe Stones 

2 Doz. Large Stone Butter Pots 

4 Doz. strong Gallon Pewter Basons 

15 lb Pounds fresh Lucerne seed well and Dry ) 
Packed and not Turned into the Hold or Miy Damp Placej 


I find I am so unfortunate as to fail in Every attempt to Carry on 
that Correspondence with you I would Incline. I this year offered 
your Captain Hanson Both barr and Pig for your Patapsco vessell 
But was Refused. Therefore now send you one of our Province 
Bills of Exchange for thirty two Pounds and six pence Sterling which 
will Discharge the Ballance Due you for the Lions Sent me Except 
one Shilling and Ten pence fot which must be your Debtor till an 



opportunity offers of Paying it we are in Dayly Expectation of Seeing 

M"^ Buchanan who I hope will shew more Inclination to take me as 

a Correspondent than your Captains of this be assured that I will 

with Pleasure when Ever you or they Please Consign you any Effects 

I Deal in I am „ ^ , ^j^, „ ^ 

Gent your most H"'^ berv* 

Annapolis Maryland ) C. Carroll 

October 6^^ 1764 ) 

To Mr William Perkins ) 
and C° Merch^s in London ) 

^ Captain Cock ) 

^ Curling J 


I have this year Shipped to you in Captain Spencer 10 Tons of 
Pig and 8 Tons of Bar Iron to make Trial How those Commodities 
Turn out at your Post Inclosed I send you Bill Lading for the same 
and Certificate that they are Plantation made — I hope by the Price 
they bear with you to be Encouraged to Continue the Correspond- 
ence — 

I send you also an Invoice of some Goods to be sent by the very 
first of your Ships Coming in as they are for my own family use 
they must be the best in their Kinds the four Dozen Gallon Pewter 
Basons mentioned in the Invoice are for a Dairy if there are any 
Particularly made for that use Let them be of that Sort. The Flag 
Stones must be such as will bear the weather M' Nicholas Mac- 
cubbin Had some Come in from you @ 3/ ^ yard of a blueish 
Grey that he Tells me stand the Rains and frost Pretty well without 
Pealing. I have seen others of a whiter Kind that Look Harder 
send me which you Judge best of about the Price. I shall be 
obliged if your Captain Has Room if he will take the seed wrote for 
into his Cabbin as it is apt to be spoiled by any Damp it may 
Receive. Please to make Insurance on the Goods when sent me so 
that in Case of Loss I may Draw the Principal and all Charges — 
I hope for your Care in the above and 

Am Gentlemen Mo h^e Serv* 

C. Carroll 

Annapolis Maryland October ? 
6^ 1764 ) 

October 13*^ 1764 Give to M^ 
To Messrs Sedgley Hilhouse and \ Tho^ Ringgold to put on board 
Randolph Merch* in Bristol ) the Albion Capt. Tho. SpeiKcr 

p"" Curling 

(To be continued.) 


By Elizabeth W. Meade 

The rough " Minutes of the House of Delegates," covering the 
period between February 10, 1777 and March 13, 1777, have come to 
light recently among the miscellaneous papers of the Chancery Court 
at the Hall of Records. The minutes are recorded in a notebook, 6% 
by 8% inches, which contains 48 unnumbered pages. When the book 
vi^as found, the outer cover was gone, pages at the beginning and end 
seemed to be missing, and the remaining pages were badly damaged 
along the lower margin. Since its recovery the document has been 
repaired and restored as far as possible to its original condition. 

It is apparent that these notes were taken, in a kind of shorthand, 
during the sessions of the Legislature, to be expanded later into the 
complete journals of the House of Delegates. The Hall of Records 
has a series, though a very incomplete one, of these notebooks. Until 
this little book was discovered, there was a gap in the series from 
February 7, 1777 to March 15, 1777. These rough notes and the 
" Journal of the House of Delegates, 1777-1778 " are almost iden- 
tical in arrangement, wording and content, so far as it is possible to 
check the one against the other. The minutes do not include any 
material which was presented to the Legislature in written form, 
§uch as the text of bills, proclamations, and letters, though the place 
for their insertion is indicated. All the notebooks for 1777 are in the 
same handwriting but, without more evidence, it is impossible to 
say whether Gabriel Duvall, the clerk of the House of Delegates, 
took his own notes or left that duty to an assistant. 

It will be remembered that the establishment of the State govern- 
ment in Maryland took place in the early months of 1777. The as- 
sumption of statehood represented the final step in the gradual 
process of severing the legal ties between Great Britain and her 
colony. The first convention of those in Maryland who opposed 
British regulations met on June 22, 1774. From that date until 1777, 
the supreme governmental authority was vested in a convention com- 
posed of the representatives from each county in Maryland. Because 
if its unwieldy numbers the convention functioned through a council 
of safety of sixteen to seven members, which was, in fact, the exe- 
cutive branch of the larger body. The Council of Safety began its 
sessions on August 21, 1775 with full authority to carry on tiie 



struggle against Great Britain except in a case of great emergency, 
at which time the whole Convention might be assembled. This ar- 
rangement was continued till March 22, 1777, the day after the in- 
auguration of Thomas Johnson as Governor of the State of Mary- 
land. On that date the Council of Safety was abolished. 

The first constitution of the State of Maryland was drawn up by 
a special convention which sat from August l4 to November 11 of 
the year 1776. According to Scharf's History of Maryland (Vol. 
II, 284-85, 287), the senatorial electors were chosen on November 
25, 1776, the election of the members of the House of Delegates 
took place on December 18, 1776 and the first General Assembly met 
on February 5, 1777 by order of the Council of Safety. One of the 
earliest acts of the Assembly was the election of Thomas Johnson as 
Governor on February 13; the following day they completed the 
organization of the State government by choosing an executive coun- 
cil of five members to assist the governor. 

This brief recital of the familiar details in the history of the State 
indicates the importance of the period between February 10, 1777 
and March 13, 1777, the period which is covered by the newly dis- 
covered " Minutes of the House of Delegates." Though the governor 
and council were chosen during this period, the Council of Safety 
continued to exercise its extensive executive powers. During the 
course of the transition from Convention to State government, the 
separation of the executive from the legislative branch was not pre- 
served, since several members of the Council of Safety were also sena- 
tors ("Journal of the House of Delegates, Feb. 7, 1777 "). This 
mixture of legislative and executive authority which prevailed be- 
tween August, 1775 and March, 1777, doubtless facilitated the pro- 
secution of the war. At any rate, the General Assembly in its first 
session gave the governor and council the powers formerly exercised 
by the Council of Safety, except the right of banishment (Laws of 
Maryland, , Chap. XXIV). This Act, after enumerating the 
various functions of the Council of Safety concluded with the words: 
" and do everything, in their own discretion, for defending and 
strengthening the province'' These extensive powers of the Governor 
and Council were renewed by the General Assembly during each 
session until November, 1781. The " Minutes of the House of Dele- 
gates " which form the occasion for this note, deal with a critical 
period in the history of the State as well as of the Nation. The note 
book is of value in corroborating the Journal of the House of 
Delegates " in the early months of the year 1777. 

Hall of Records, Annapolis. 


The Artist of the Revolution; The Early Life of Charles Willson Peale. By 
Charles Coleman Sellers. Hebron, Conn.: Feather and Good, 
xvi, 293 pp. J7.50. 

In this highly worth while volume we find the first accurate account of the 
early career of Maryland's most versatile genius; in fact, Charles Willson 
Peale's very versatility has heretofore interfered with the credit due him in 
the profession which with him was a vocation, at times, and apparently an 
avocation at others. 

The reviewer is not capable of passing upon matters of comparative merit 
in art; yet he would note that despite certain long-current misconceptions, 
critical judges have of late become inaeasingly aware of Peale's ability, 
especially in the way of accuracy in likeness and charm of presentation. It 
has also been realized that earlier detractions, based in part on the fact that 
Peale did not always " stick to his last," were unfair to the work actually 

In preserving the likenesses of the founders of the Republic this country 
owes more to Peale during the critical period of its beginnings than to all 
other artists combined. Certainly no American artist labored under such 
handicaps in starting his career and in pursuing it in the midst of war and 
its aftermath of economic depression. Nevertheless, during these formative 
years of the Republic, Peale has the distinction of founding the first American 
national portrait gallery and the first academy of art. Allied with these, he 
established the first scientifically arranged American museum of natural his- 
tory. Since these institutions were located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania claims 
him, as well as Maryland, his native commonwealth. 

In terms of the hunt, the biography gets off to a slow start, since it has, 
for the general reader, overmuch genealogical matter. Thereafter, however, 
the interest quickens, and the re\'iewer would merely anticipate the pleasure 
of the reader by referring to a few of the fresh sidelights thrown upon Ameri- 
can life during the last half of the eighteenth century. 

If there be any artist of any age who passed through similar interruptions 
unwillingly to engage in war and politics, he is unknown to the reviewer. 
In him the individualism of the American was illustrated and intensified, and 
almost literally Peale went to war with his brush in one hand and a musket — 
with gadgets of his own invention thereon — in the other. As captain of his 
Philadelphia Company, his experiences, over and above his between-engage- 
ments in portrait painting, are assuredly unique. To illustrate, he secured 
hides with which he made shoes for his men ; he would scout for them, and 
even provide food and see that it was properly cooked! Although he hated 
war and shrank from its brutality, he did not shirk his duties or dodge its 
dangers. Again, he was instrumental in securing the passage of the first anti- 
slavery legislation; and yet, from necessity, he was himself a slave-owner. 
He hated rough and tumble politics, yet he was perforce the chosen leader of 
the " Furious Whig " faction of the Revolutionary party, and he later became 
a legal agent for the despoliation of the Tories, as he, at no little personal 
risk, sought to ameliorate the severity of his orders. 

Mr. Sellers has given us the biograjrfiy of an artist; but historians will jSnd 




here exemplified nearly every phase of American life before, during, and 
after the Revolution. The volume is no mere eulogium, but a dispassionate 
narrative-exposition of unusual interest. Several anecdotes throw light upon 
matters of general information. 

Elsewhere, for instance, it has been recorded that at the outset of the Revo- 
lution the British complained of the habit American riflemen had of firing 
directly at officers. According to them, this just wasn't cricket! Nevertheless, 
it was the American way, gained from Indian fighting where the individual 
enemy counted and where the werowance or sachem furnished a target of 
greater importance than that of any of his warriors. Modernizing the orthog- 
raphy, Peale writes to a friend at Londcm (italics inserted) : 

One of their captains who went to relieve guard was shot at by three of our rifle- 
men at 250 yards distance and tumbled from his horse. This is a practice that Gen- 
eral Washington now discountenances. 

The final sentence engagingly illustrates the fact that while Washington 
bad been an Indian fighter, he had also been an officer in the colonial British 
service, at which time, like a true Britisher, he called England '" home " and 
Virginia " the country." 

It is an exceptional biographer who does not make rather frequent slips 
when, in the course of his production, he deals with matters related to con- 
temporary figures and events. Mr. Sellers is exceptional ; however, when he 
refers to a " serious indiscretion " by Charles Willson Peale or by Thomas 
Paine, or both, in accusing Silas Deane of dubious transactions, it may be 
stated that had Peale been acquainted with Professor Abernethy's recent reve- 
lations, Peale would have known that Benjamin Franklin was then being 
duped by Silas Deane, who was far more guilty than either Peale or Paine 

In view of the earlier belittlement of Peale as craftsman, it is interesting 
to learn that it was he who was asked to paint a new full-length of Wash- 
ington to be sent to France, after which Houdon modeled his famous statue 
now in the Capitol at Richmond. More recently, it may be added, George V 
preferred a Peale portrait in selecting a British memorial of Washington. 

In view of the recent " discovery " that James Rumsey invented, and first 
patented, in 1788 the water-tube boiler, it is interesting to note that at 
Annapolis Peale went to see Rumsey's steam engine, to view which " the 
public had been invited by the town aier." Doubtless Peale was doubly 
mtrigued by reason of his friendship with his fellow-inventor, Benjamin 
Frariklin, who helped to send Rumsey abroad. 

Because of modern developments, it may be said that the most astonishing 
of Peale's inventions was the ingenious mechanism he devised to show the 
first American moving pictures through the use of " transparencies.' In addi- 
tion, he provided sound effects, to say nothing of showing his ' movies ' dur- 
ing the summer months in a hall that was more or less ' air-conditioned ' 
through an original arrangement of fans. 

It is said that no reviewer considers himself happy, virtuous, or erudite if 
he does not find some fault with the work under discussion! This critic, 
therefore, points to possible peccability by asking why recent biographers feel 
that, when the subject of the biography is innocent of wrong-doing, it is neces- 
sary or desirable to look over the list of ancestors or other relatives with a 
View to finding and exposing some family scandal! Dr. Freeman went to 



great lengths to do this in the case of " Light Horse Harry," the father of 
Robert E. Lee ; and Mr. Sellers evidently felt it incumbent upon him to pursue 
the same policy with respect to Charles Peale, the artist's father, yet the 
reviewer, long accustomed to weighing historical evidence, would offset the 
record with the following apparently pertinent observations which may give 
to the elder Peale the " benefit of the doubt." Although pronounced guilty 
of peculation in England, he received the extreme sentence that the law 
allowed, while his political superiors were let off later with light sentences 
for more serious offenses. These superiors may well have used their influence 
to make Charles Peale the vicarious victim of schemes that they had con- 
cocted, thereby explaining why Peale was released and enabled to start life 
anew in America. 

The format and execution of the volume are excellent; and besides the 
frontispiece there are twenty-four illustrations, a considerable proporticMi of 
them being finely reproduced portraits of Marylanders. 

Matthew Page Andrews. 

Writings of General John Forbes Relating to His Service in North America. 
Compiled and edited by Alfred Procter James, Ph. D., for the Alle- 
gheny County Committee of the Pennsylvania Society of the Colonial 
Dames of America. Menasha, Wisconsin: Collegiate Press, 1938. xv, 
316 pp. $3.50. 

This collection of letters throws new and interesting light on the capture 
of Fort Duquesne, later known as Pittsburgh. Those familiar with the history 
of the conflict between the English and French for the possession of North 
America will recall how important the control of the Ohio valley was in 
determining the result of this struggle. To the French the Ohio valley was 
an essential link between their colonies in Canada and Louisiana. If, on the 
other hand, the English could control this valley, it meant that instead of 
being hemmed in on the west by the French they had room for expansion in 
that direction. The first two years of the French and Indian War (1754- 
1760), as the fourth and decisive intercolonial war was known, brought only 
disaster to the English. It was during this time that the expedition sent to 
capture Fort Duquesne under command of General Edward Braddock met 
defeat. When, however, William Pitt became Secretary of State the campaign 
in America was pushed with renewed energy. Louisburg surrendered in July 
1758 and soon afterwards Fort Frontenac. Brigadier General John Forbes 
directed the second campaign having as its objective the capture of Fort 

In one of the letters in this collection Forbes discusses his plan of campaign. 
In this letter which is written from Philadelphia on June 17th, 1758, and 
addressed to William Pitt, the general said that as — 

My offensive operations are clogged with many difficulties, owing to the great dis- 
tance and badness of the roads, through an almost impenetrable wood. ... I am 
therefore laid under the necessity of having a stockaded camp, with a blockhouse and 
cover for our provisions, at every forty miles distance. By which means, although I 
advance but gradually, yet I shall go more surely by lessening the nun^er, and iiB- 
moderate long train of provisions, wagons, etc., for I cm s«t out with a fortni^'s 



provisions fiom my first deposit, in order to make my second, whicli being finislied 
in a few days, and another fortnight's provision, brought up from the first, to the 
second, I directly advance to make my third, and so proceed forward, by which I 
shall have a constant supply security for my jprovisions, by moving them forward from 
deposits, to deposit, as I advance. . . . 

In this plan lay the secret of Forbes' success. He did not, as General Brad- 
dock had done, attempt to advance his whole army at one stretch to Fort 
Duquesne burdened with a long and cumbersome baggage train. As a result, 
when he was within striking distance of the fort, he was able to advance upon 
it without being impeded by wagons and pack horses. 

Although wise in his selection of his plan of campaign, General Forbes 
encountered many difficulties when he attempted to put this plan into execu- 
tion. The colonial governments did not contribute the funds which he 
thought necessary to finance the expedition. Forbes complained when the 
Maryland assembly adjourned without providing anything " for the present 
service, or for the pay and maintenance of their troops. ..." In a letter to 
William Pitt he said that the assembly's action " in refusing all aid, and 
assistance, for their own protection . . . strikes all honest men with a horri- 
ble idea of their ingratitude to the best of Kings." 

Forbes' advance was delayed by the difficulty he had in securing wagons 
and pack horses to carry his ordnance and provisions. He bitterly lamented 
what he called " the villainy and rascality of the inhabitants, who to a man 
seem rather bent upon our ruin, and destruction, than give the smallest assist- 
ance, which if at last extorted is so infamously charged as shows the disposi- 
tion of the people in its full glare." Excessive rains also impeded his progress. 

For the provincial troops serving under him. General Forbes had little 
regard. He advised one of his officers in dealing with "such a parcel of 
scoundrels ... to drop a little of the gentleman and treat them as they 
deserve, and pardon no remissness in duty, as few or any serve from any 
principles but low sordid ones." It is encouraging to note, however, that in a 
subsequent letter to William Pitt the general commended " the spirit of some 
of the provincials, particularly the Maryland troops. ..." As for the pro- 
vincial officers Forbes stated in one letter that with the exception of their 
principal officers all the rest were an extreme bad collection of broken inn- 
keepers, horse jockeys, and Indian traders. ..." 

General Forbes failed in his plan to keep the friendship of the Cherokee 
Indians, who, he wrote, could not " be kept with us neither by promises nor 
presents." Most of them deserted and went home. Better success, however, 
attended his efforts to gain the friendship of the Indians living in the vicinity 
of Fort Duquesne. By winning their friendship the general deprived the 
French of the aid and assistance of these savages at a critical time. 

During the entire campaign Forbes was a very sick man. Indeed his ill 
health was the greatest handicap with which he had to contend. He was con- 
stantly bothered with what he called " the cursed ... or damned bloody 
flux . . . and most exaudating pains in my bowels." He was obliged, he 
writes, '" to travel in a hurdle carried betwixt two horses." Not long after he 
had succeeded in capturing Fort Duquesne the general died of dysentery. 

It would be difficult to overemphasize the importance of the capture of 
Fort Duquesne, as it not only opened the west to the English, but also relieved 
the western borders of the constant danger of Indian raids. Because of the 
information about this expedition contained in the Writings of General John 



Forbes, historians will be grateful to Dr. James for compiling and editing 
this collection of letters, and to the Allegheny County Committee, of the 
Pennsylvania Society of the Colonial Dames of America, under whose auspices 
the work was done. 

Raphael Semmes. 

Women's Life and Work in the Southern Colonies. By Julia Cherry 
Spruill. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1938. viii, 

426 pp. $5. 

In a sinful world nothing is perfect. Certainly the women who lived and 
worked in the Southern colonies were not. But Julia Cherry Spruill's 
Women's Life and Work in the Southern Colonies comes so close to perfec- 
tion that it is exceedingly hard to say wherein it sins. It is a gorgeous book, 
and Mrs. Spruill is to be congratulated, not oiJy on a good job, but on the 
corking good time she had in doing it. 

Women's Life and Work is a book for historians. The author says that 
what started as a study of changing Southern attitudes toward women finished 
as " the life and status of women in the English colonies of the South." The 
head of the history department at the Johns Hopkins used to say that he had 
never seen a dissertation that came out at exactly the point for which, in the 
beginning, it had started. This book rests almost entirely on original sources, 
though there is evidence that all the valuable secondary works were read in 
the course of its preparation. Some of the material, from Virginia and North 
Carolina, was used in manuscript, but the major part was printed. For Mary- 
land there were used the Archives, and the Laws, Bacon's and Kilty's and 
Maxcy's compilations; the Gazettes, both Parks's and Green's; the Maryland 
Historical Society's ""Fund Publications" and the Magazine. Footnotes 
verify the author's references; these do more, for they definitely stir up and 
then satisfy further curiosity. The index is adequate: for an index there can 
no higher praise be given. 

Historical apparatus aside, the book is good reading. Such a subject could 
have been treated to make a dull book, but here is a juicy one. Even the 
chapter headings show a nice feeling for lively human values. The first chap- 
ter is ""Women wanted"; then come "From hut to mansion," "In the 
increasing way " — which could have been called " In the straw " — "Conju- 
gal felicity and domestic discord," and so on down to the last, "' Under the 
law." Not too much attention is paid to the rich and well-born. Eliza Lucas 
Pinckney and the Laurens daughters from South Carolina, the Brents and the 
Carroll daughters figure, as they must, but so do the tavern-keepers and the 
midwives and the serving women. Much that is set forth herein is not only 
unfamiliar but even surprising. George Washington tells his mother, almost 
in so many words, that she is not welcome to live at Mount Vernon; and she 
borrows from her neighbors and tells them — what is not true — that her chil- 
dren refuse to support her. 

Much used to be made, a quarter century ago, of the fact, for fact it was, 
that in Maryland a father, dying, could will away from his wife the guardian- 
ship of his children, even of those not yet born when he died. For that, Mrs. 
Spruill points out that there was an explanation, and not the usual one of a 
man's cruelty to the mother of his children. Back in colonial days, when a 



woman married, whatever she had belonged to her husband. Experience 
shows that widows often, indeed usually, remarried — as did widowers — and 
when they did so, everything they had, even the clothes on their backs, 
belonged to the husband. Katherine Hebden, a " doctress," married Thomas 
who was a carpenter. And husband Thomas not only collected Katherine's 
earnings, but, dying, left her only a life interest in what had been her own 
property. If then, a widow's second husband were so disposed, he could take 
all the property really belonging to the children of her earlier marriage, and 
she could do not a thing about it. Any other guardian could sue the wicked 
step-father and force an accounting; the mother, since she was the villain's 
wife, could not. 

Marylanders reading this book will find many women and many things 
they know, and many more that are strange to them. Margaret and Mary 
Brent, Dicah Nuthead and Mary Katherine Goddard, Molly Tilghman, Ver- 
linda Stone and the Dulany women appear, as they must in any study like this. 
Here too is Susanna Starr, who, according to an advertisement, had run away 
from home four times, so her husband said. Who would know what a tate- 
maker did, were not the same Annapolitan also a hair-dresser? From the 
Eastern Shore comes the unfamiliar story of Sarah Vanhart, the eleven-year- 
old heiress who was married, without her guardian's consent, to a man much 
older than she was, and very much her inferior. When the guardian learned 
of it, he got possession of the child, and the court sustained him and did not 
force her to be surrendered to her husband. The free school in Queen Anne's 
County, one of the earliest in the province, had some scholars for whom it 
was genuinely free, in the modern American sense. They were Foundation 
Scholars, and one of them was Lily Ann Heath, daughter of Ann Heath. 
This must have been a co-educational school, but most of those whose stories 
have come down to us, were girls' schools, most distinctly. A school in 
Annapolis taught reading and writing for thirty shillings a year, but charged 
forty shillings to teach " all sorts of embroidery, Turkey Work, and all Sorts 
of rich Stitches learnt in Sampler Work." 

More than is commonly understood, colonial women took part in business 
and in public affairs. Mary Doughtie Vanderdonck was only one of a good 
number. She practiced regularly as a physician in Charles County, Maryland, 
and she was not reluctant to carry her debtor into court. The Archives speak 
of other Maryland women who were doctors, and most of them seem to have 
had more trouble in collecting their pay than the men did. 

Women's IJfe and Work in the Southern Colonies is eminently readable. 
It can even be dipped into and separate chapters read. The present work stops 
at the Declaration of Independence: very much it is to be hoped that some 
day Mrs. Spruill will go on from there to some more recent date. It would be 
worth doing: fifteen or twenty years after the Declaration, a Maryland gentle- 
man, consoling a friend for the loss of a baby, says that, after all the death 
of an infant is hardly a real loss. 

Elizabeth Merritt. 

]ohn McDonogh, His Life and Work. By William Talbott Childs. 
Baltimore: [Meyer & Thalheimer], 1939. 255 pp. $2. 

John McDonogh is the example of a man who won immortality through 
his beneficences to pid>lic education. In Batemore, where he was born, a 



school for boys that bears his name has become one of the city's distin- 
guished institutions. In New Orleans, where he lived and made his fortune, 
there are several McDonogh Schools, survivals of a day when the education 
of the poor had not yet become the responsibility of the state and which owe 
their existence to the shrewd Scotch merchant's endowments. 

As a young man who early acquired great wealth McDonogh, according to 
his biographer, lived extravagantly and mingled with the most fashionable 
society. An unhappy love alfair transformed him into a recluse, living on a 
farm with his slaves as his only friends and regarded generally as an eccentric 
miser. Upon his death in 1850 the community was astonished to learn that 
he had bequeathed his fortune to education. Mr. Childs' life reveals Mc- 
Donogh also as an active member of the Colonization Society, whose aim 
was to return negro slaves to Liberia. McDonogh himself sent a number of 
his own slaves back, having devised an ingenious system by which they 
labored extra hours to purchase their freedom. Mr. Childs, a former head- 
master of McDonogh School in Baltimore, has collected in his volume much 
interesting information on a man who should be better known. 

Franqs F. Beirne. 

Redmond C. Stewart, Fox-Hunter and Gentleman of Maryland. By Gordon 
Grand. New York: Scribner's, 1938. xiv, 198 pp. $5. 

This graphic portrayal of a typical Marylander of the Past, Present, and 
it is hoped, the Future, from the practiced pen of Gordon Grand, gives a 
picture of a Maryland Gentleman, and Sportsman, at his very best. 

Redmond Conyngham Stewart was in every sense of the word all that is 
implied in the title of this noteworthy book; " one whom to know was to 
love — to name was to praise." 

Of Scotch Irish descent, his forebears settled first in Philadelphia, his 
great grandfather, David Stewart, becoming one of Maryland's foremost 
citizens, serving not only in the State Senate, but afterwards in that of the 
United States. 

His father, Charles Morton Stewart, was a prominent merchant, the 
Stewart fleet of Baltimore Clippers being pioneers in the coffee trade with 
Brazil. He was also interested in the cause of good government, especially 
Civil Service Reform, and at the time of his death was President of the 
Board of Trustees of the Johns Hopkins University. He was a member, as 
was the son also for some years, of the Maryland Historical Society, as well 
as a patron of art, and possessed a small but well chosen collection of paint- 
ings, bronzes and bric-a-brac, which were shown to advantage in a specially 
constructed gallery at Cliffeholme, his country place in the Green Spring 

Here Redmond grew up in the midst of a large family of brothers and 
sisters, and after a boarding school experience in Switzerland, he returned 
to Baltimore, graduated from the Johns Hopkins University, and afterwards 
from the University of Maryland Law School. 

On his mother's side, he was descended from Gustav W. Liirman, whose 
beautiful gardens at Farmlands, near CatonsviUe, were said to have been 
laid off by Downing, the famous landscape architect, while Mrs. Liirman 
was the daughter of John Donnell, a prominent Baltimore merchant, whose 



ancestry traced back to Leopold, Earl of Mercia, husband of the noted Lady 
Godiva and founder of the monastery at Coventry, who died in 1027. 

Space does not permit an account of Redmond Stewart's exploits with 
horse and hound, both in this country and abroad, but he was regarded as 
an authority on the sport of fox-hunting, and as Master of the Green Spring 
Valley Hunt for twenty- five years, he was instrumental in placing these 
hounds in the very forefront of American packs. 

He served with distinction in the Great War, and was decorated with 
the Distinguished Service Medal for " exceptionally meritorious acts as 
Major Judge Advocate, U. S. A." He passed away in February, 1936, and 
of him truly it could be said " be was a very parfit, gentle, knight, without 
fear and without reproach." 

D. Sterett Cuttings. 

The Lutheran Church of Frederick, Maryland, 1738-1938. By Abdel Ross 
Wentz. Harrisburg: Evangelical Press, 1938. 375 pp. $3. 

In both accuracy and in readability this account of one of Maryland's old 
and influential religious institutions is far above the average church history. 
The narrative, gathered from complete and continuous records for all but the 
first eight years of the church's existence, is replete with details of a frontier 
congregation's struggles to establish a church; with the earnest and trying 
efforts of early missionaries whose paths ranged from Pennsylvania to the 
Carolinas ; with the wiles and the hypocracies of that early American person- 
ality often parasitic to all faiths, the "' ministerial pretender " ; with the final 
triumph over all difficulties and the consequent growth to one of the most 
important Lutheran churches in America — ^ten years older than any Lutheran 
Synod in the nation. 

The average Lutheran churchman will, of course, find interest in the per- 
sonalities of the long line of ministers and in the development of the 
church's many organizations and activities. The idea of a Sunday School 
dates back to 1812, although not formally organized as we know it today 
until eight years later. Training for the Lutheran ministry by the seminary 
method received its American initiation in this Frederick church and resulted 
in the establishment of Gettysburg Theological Seminary in 1826 where, 
incidentally, Dr. Wentz, the author, is now professor or Church History. 
The Frederick church, too, aided in launching various church journals 
printed in English. Its ministers were constant contributors to the Lutheran 

The casual student will be well rewarded by frequent sidelights into the 
life of the times which could not escape reflection in the development of 
the church. Interesting also is the manner in which the church's history 
followed the line of the nation's development, best illustrated, perhaps, in 
the struggle to " democratize " the services, if one may use such a term, and 
the slow but sure swing to the English language as the medium of expression 
rather than German. The difiiculties of a divided congregation during the 
trying period of the Civil War are reflected in scattered but pungent 

Replete with references to individuals active in the building up of the 
churchi and supplemented by several old dburch tolls, families with Western 



Maryland roots will find this fruitful in yielding interesting details of family 

It is to be regretted that even by indirect mention, the Barbara Fritchie 
myth is kept alive, and there are other slight inaccuracies in general histori- 
cal background. However, in a book of this type, such errors are negligible 
as its prime purpose is an account of churdi history. This role it fills 

From Mill Wheel to Plowshare. By Julia Angeune Drake and James 
RiDGELY Orndorff. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Torch Press, 1938. xii, 
271 pp. $3. 

In this interesting and instructive volume the reader is given an account 
of the migrations of certain descendants of one Christian Orndorff who is 
said to have come from Prussia to America before 1750, settling in or near 
Philadelphia for a brief period and removing thence to that part of Lancaster 
County which is now Lebanon County, Pennsylvania. The son of this aged 
pioneer, also named Christian, likewise became interested in the purchase 
of mill sites in Pennsylvania, but in 1762 the younger man took up his resi- 
dence in western Maryland, purchasing a plantation in Frederick County, to 
which he gave the name of " Mt. Pleasant." He took an active part in the 
American Revolution, was a member of the Committee of Safety and a 
captain in the Maryland Line, serving until the close of the war. In 1794 
he was appointed a major in an expedition against the Indians on the west- 
ern frontier. He died at Sharpsburg, Md., in 1797 in the 72nd year of his 
age, leaving eleven children, all of whom married. 

The authors of this book trace the migrations of some of the descendants 
of Christian Orndorff, from Maryland to Kentucky, Tennessee and the vast 
prairies of central Illinois. It is a fascinating story of Colonial adventure. 
Many interesting items relating to the family are found in the appendix of 
35 pages. This is followed by an alphabetical list of allied famihes, a sec- 
tion devoted to notes on the text, and an adequate index of names and 

Extracts from the correspondence of Christopher Hughes of Baltimore, 
charge d'affaires in European capitals from 1817 to 1845 and first American 
"" career diplomat," have appeared in several numbers of the Michigan Alum- 
nus Quarterly Review (Oct. 1934, March 28, 1936, Dec. 10, 1938, and Feb. 
18, 1939) . Dr. Jesse S. Reeves of the University of Michigan faculty is the 
author of the articles which have been based on the extensive collection of 
Hughes papers in his possession. Letters from Lafayette, Coke of Norfolk, 
George Canning, John Quincy Adams and other notables of the day are in- 
cluded. In the Gallery of the Society hangs a portrait of Hughes by Sii 
Martin A. Shee, a bequest from the subject who died in 1849. 

Harold R. Manakee. 

Francis B. Culvbr. 



Side-lights on the Baltimore of 1796 with special emphasis on the theatre 
may be gleaned the book. An Unconscious Autobiography: William Osborn 
Payne's Diary and Letters, 17% to 1804 edited by Thatcher T. P. Luquer, 
privately printed 1938 in New York, 103 pages, $3.50. The older brother 
of John Howard Payne, who also was identified with Baltimore for a time, 
William O. Payne entered the employ of the Baltimore merchant, William 
Taylor, with whom he remained several years. 

Other Recent Books of Maryland Interest 

History of Maryland Classis of the Reformed Church in the United States, 
... By Rev. Guy P. Bready [Tafieytown, Md.: Author, 1938]. 
320 pp. $2. 

The Unlocked Book; A Memoir of John Wilkes Booth. By His Sister, Asia 

Booth Clarke. With a Foreword by Eleanor Farjeon. New York: 

Putnam, 1938. 205 pp. $2.75. 
Historical Scholarship in the United States, 1876-1901: As Revealed in the 

Correspondence of Herbert B. Adams. Edited by W. Stull Holt. 

Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1938. 3l4 pp. $3.50. (J. H. U. 

Studies in Historical and Political Science, Series 56, No. 4.) 
Daniel Willard Bides the Line. By Edward Hungerford. New York- 

Putnam, 1938. 301 pp. $4. 
Life and Letters of Fielding H. Garrison. By Solomon R. Kagan, M. D. 

With an introduction by Professor James J. Walsh. Boston: Medico- 
Historical Press, 1938. xvl, 287 pp. $3. 
The Life Story of Rev. Francis Makeniie. By Rev. I. Marshall Page.- Grand 

Rapids Mich.: Eerdmans, 193^. 258 pp. $2.50. 
The Story of the Baltimore Yearly Meeting from 1672 to 1938. Compiled 

by Anna Braithwaite Thomas. Baltimore: Weant Press, 1938. 142, 

xiii pp. 

A Brief History of a Bank [By Raymond Tompkins]. Baltimore: Western 
National Bank, 1938. 68 pp. 


Summer Hours: From June 1 to September 15, inclusive, the buildings of 
the Society will be open as follows: 

Monday to Friday, 9 a. m. to 4 p. m. 
Saturday, 9 a. m. to 1 p. m. 

Riggs Genealogy: Inquiries and correspondence with interested persons 
regarding the forthcoming book. The Genealogy of the Riggs and Allied 
Families, subscription price $10, are invited by the author, 

John Beverley Riggs, 

Brookeville, Md, 



Can any one give me the names of the children of John and Elizabeth 
Enloes? John was taxed, 1699, Baltimore Oiunty, Md. His widow, 
Elizabeth, married John Leakins. 

Mrs. Lee I. Dunn, 
608 So. St. Andrews St., Los Angeles, Calif. 

Wanted: Early history and name of parents of Josiah Lewis, born about 

1730, died 1808 in Bladen County, N. C. Married Mullington, 

daughter of Richard Mullington, about 1750. Family tradition says family 
lived in eastern Maryland, early. 

Kyle W. Hill, 
Glenwood, Iowa. 

Dowden: Ancestry wanted of Clementius Dowden, born January 11, 1762, 
in Prince George's County, Md. (Revolutionary War soldier) . 

Elizabedi T. LeMaster (Mrs. Vernon L.), 

309 Whitman St., Rockford, 111. 

Wright: Information wanted of birthplace and early residence of Peter 
Wright, Nicholite Quaker, born 1791, son of John Wright of Northwest Fork 
Meeting, from any of the descendants of his brothers and sisters: Willis mar^ 
tied Hannah Wilson; Mary married Isaac Wright; John married Mary 
Mansur. Peter Wright married Mary Anderson and went to Philadelphia in 

Where was the birthplace of Mary Anderson, daughter of James Anderson 
ol Kent County, Delaware.!" 

Ernest N. Wright, 
619 Drexel Place, Pasadena, Calif. 

Pollock: Can any one give me more information about the " John Pollock, 
Gentleman," who is mentioned in the Pennsylvania Archives, Series I, vol. 3, 
page 603, and in Maryland Archives, Vol. XLVIII, page 414, and in Vol. 
XXXI, pages 323, 332, 333.^ In depositions given in 1759 in Worcester 
County, Md., he is mentioned as " aged 50 years or thereabouts " ; he " had 
lived at the plantation he now lives at upwards of 30 years and held his rights 
under Lord Baltimore." Other depositions were given at the same time and 
place by Charles and Ephraim Polke. Who were the children of this John 
Pollock and what was his wife's name? 

Was the John Pollock who kept a store on " Little Creek Hundred " in 
Delaware and the John Pollock who kept a store in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, 
where he died in 1806, a son of the above John Pollock? 'The Pollock of 
Lewisburg married an Isabella RoUin (or Rowland) in Chester County, Pa. 
He was also related to the James Polk of White Deer. Their families were 



" cousins." James of White Deer was descended from John Pollock, born 
in 1688 in Ireland. Did James have a brother William? 

Rowland: Who was the William Rowland mentioned in Maryland Ar- 
chives, Vol. XLvni, p. 4l4, May 16, 1783: "To William Rowland for 110 
pounds 1 s., 2p. and to John Pollock for 28 pounds, 19 s., lOp. due them on 
Continental Loan Office Certificates adjusted by the auditor — ." 

Did the above William have a daughter, Isabella, or son John? Who was 
the John Rowland who was a circuit rider minister and such an eloquent 
preacher that Ms enemies called him " Hell Fire Rowland."? 

Mrs. F. A. DeBoos, 
715 Monroe Blvd., Dearborn, Mich. 

John Dennis, born 1770; died in Baltimore, 1818; married in 1796 in 
Cecil County, Md., Ann Thomas, bom 1775. Both were buried in Old St. 
Paul's Burial Ground, Baltimore. 

Thomas Leech, died in Baltimore, 1821; married in Cecil County, Md., 
1805, Ruth Thomas, born 1783. About 1810 Thomas Leech lived at Colum- 
bia, Lancaster County, Pa. 

Information desired as to parentage of John Dennis and Thomas Leech 
and their wives : Ann Thomas and Ruth Thomas, who were sisters. Ann and 
Ruth Thomas had brothers Isaac, Jacob, and Abram, and sisters Naomi, 

married John Slater; Opha, married Basil Murphy; Mary married 


Mrs. Clara Morrison, 
2808 39th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Who was the father of John Gist (wife Mary ) ? His will 

was made May 7, 1778, and filed in Loudoun Co.,, Va. Names of children: 
Thomas, John, William, Nathaniel, Sarah, Henson Lewis, Constant, Elizabeth 
Nancy (Keen) , Mary (Keen) , Violet (Lewis) . Family tradition claims John 
Gist as son of Captain Christopher Gist, the explorer. 

Mrs. M. G. Neale, 
723 Fulton St., S. E., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Wanted: The ancestry of David Evans, of Greenwich, Cumberland County, 
N. J. Believed to be of Welsh descent. He married Mary Sheppard, the 
sister of Moses Sheppard (founder of the Sheppard Asylum), in New Jersey 
in 1775. He died at Radnor, Pa., in 1817. Their son, Isaac Evans, married 
Caroline C. Onion in Baltimore on June l4, 1809. Isaac Evans may have 
been a Quaker, as was his mother. Will any one with information concerning 
this family kindly communicate with Matarice F. Rodgers, 505 Orkney Road, 
Baltimore, Md. ? 



Meeks-Shawhan: Sarah Meeks, died 1736, Kent County Md., married 
March 11, 1707, St. Paul's Parish, Kent County, Darby Shawhan, 1673-1736. 
Had: Daniel, 1709; John, 1711; Dennis, 1713; Sarah, 1715, married Edward 
Dyer; Elizabeth, 1722; Darby, 1724; David, 1726; William, 1728. Wanted: 
parentage of Sarah Meeks and Darby Shawhan, Sr. I have compiled a rather 
complete record of descendants and will gladly exchange data. 

Mounts: Lieut. Col. Providence Mounts, died 1784, Fayette County, Pa., 
wife Rachel, died 1805. Constable in 1760 of Old Town Hundred, Frederick 
County, Md. ; in Colonial service in 1757 under Capt. Joseph Chapline, Fort 
Cumberland. To Pennsylvania in 1765, to that part now ConnellsviUe, 
Fayette County. Lieut. Col. 2nd Battalion, Col. John Carnahan, 1776. Closely 
associated with CoL John Crawford in various Indian campaigns. His chil- 
dren: Abner married Mary; Thomas, 1764-1832, wife Nancy Crawford, went 
to Indiana; Asa married Josinah; Joshua, wife Elcy; Jesse; Providence, died 
1813, Ohio County, W. Va., married Hannah Van Metere; Caleb, born 1766, 
married Christinia, went to Indiana ; Josina married Capt. Jacob White, went 
to Hamilton County, Ohio; Ann married Anderson; Joseph, died 1782, 
Westmoreland County, Pa. Parentage of Providence Mounts, Sr., and wife 
Rachel, wanted. Tradition in family is that he or his wife was related to 
Lafayette. He had brothers Joseph, died 1797, Allegany County, Md., wife 
Elenor ; brother William, wife Elizabeth of Westmoreland County, Pa. ; sister 
Grizzel. I have a fairly complete record of descendants. Will gladly exchange 

Shawhan: Daniel, born 1709, son of Darby of Kent County, Md., married 
Jennett. They removed to Frederick County, Md., about 1750, later to 
Hampshire County, Va., where in 1775 he sold his livestock to his son Darby, 
1748-1824, the Warren County, Ohio, pioneer. His other son, Daniel, Jr., 
born 1738, was the Kentucky pioneer of Bourbon County, Ky. Wanted: 
parentage of Jennett who married Daniel Shawhan, Sr. 

William G. Hills, 
6 Shejiierd St., Chevy Chase, Md. 

Strieker: The following information is gathered from a MS on George 
Strieker, by the late Miss Amy Hull, genealogist: 

" Catherine or Catherina Springer, see records of the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church, Frederick Co., Md., in which it is written that Catherina and George 
Strieker are godparents to a certain child in 1767. 

" According to family records, Mary Strieker, daughter of Colonel George, 
married Ninian Beall, March 7, 1780. In Scharf's History of Western Mary- 
land, p. 427, is the following marriage notice: Ninkn Beall and Anna Maria 
Strieker. March 7, 1780." 

Helen Harris. 



Solomon Rutter, b. Oct. 16, 1761, d. Feb. 28, 1821, m. 1788 (at Zion 
Church, Baltimore) Margaretta Reidenaur who was b. June 27, 1769 and d. 

. Solomon Rutter was the son of Thomas Rutter and Sarah, his 

second wife. Was she Sarah Spicer and, if so, who were her parents? Who 
were the parents of Margaretta Reidenaur.? 

Wanted. Any information about the following Willetts of Maryland. ( 1 ) 

Edward, will. 1743, m. Tabitha . Who was Tabitha? (2) Edward 

Jr., will 1772, m. 2nd Grace Litton. Who was his first wife? (3) Ninian d. 
1809, m. Ann Fleming. 

Who was John Fleming, of Prince George's & Montgomery County, Md., 
b. 1714, d. 1796? 

Who was Robert White, d. 1768 in Prince Georges Co., m. at All Hallows 
Church, Sept. 22, 1709, Ann, daughter of Edward Burgess? 

(Miss) Jessie H. Meyer 
Ruxton, Md. 


The regular meeting of the Society which was to have been held on March 
13, 1939, was cancelled on account of alterations which were being made 
in the Lftaaty and Gallery. 

April 10, 1939- The regular meeting of the Society was held tonight with 
President RaddiflFe in the chair. The following persons were elected to 


Mrs. Benjamin H. Brewster, Jr. 
Miss Grace Birmingham. 
Mr. Peter P. Blanchard. 
Mr. Leslie P. Dryden. 
Mr. Edmond S. Donoho. 
Mr. Joseph Townsend England. 
Mr. James W. Flack, Jr. 
Miss Louisa McE. Fowler. 
Mr. Eugene Frederick. 
Mrs. James McClure Gillet. 
Mr. Poultney Gorter. 
Mr. Arthur D. Gans. 
Mr. Arthur Hdl, Jr. 


Mr. William A. Bullock. Mr. Arthur Pierce Middleton. 

It was stated that Captain Anthony Eden, of London, England, accepted 
with great appreciation Honorary Membership in the Society. 

Mrs. S. Henry Hamilton. 
Mrs. M. John Lynch. 
Mr. Park W. T. Loy. 
Mrs. Jameson Parker. 
Mr. Elmer F. Ruark. 
Mr. Blanchard Randall, Jr. 
Mrs. Frank Dyer Sanger. 
Mr. Gideon N. Stieff. 
Mr. John W. Sherwood. 
Mrs. Mark Sullivan. 
Mr. R. Marsden Smith. 
Mr. William H. Wootton. 



The deaths of the following members were reported: 

Mrs. Charles W. Stetson, January — , 1939. 
Mr. Richard Henry Thomas, February 4, 1939- 
Mr. J. A. Dushane Penniman, March 5, 1939. 
Miss Ida M. Eaton, April 4, 1939. 

Mr. C. Ross McKenrick read a paper entitled New Munster and the Part 
Played by Ulster Scots in the Penn-Calvert Conflict." A vote of thanks was 
extended to Mr. McKenrick for his interesting paper. 

May 8, 1939- At the regular meeting of the Society, President Raddife 
presiding, the following persons were elected to membership: 


Mr. Donald H. Sherwood. Mr. William H. Peirce. 

Mrs. John L. Whitehurst. Mrs. William H. Peirce. 

Mr. Richard Goldsborough. Mr. Ira D. Watkins. 

Mr. Thomas Carroll Roberts. 


Mr. Thomas E. Waggaman. Mr. H. Minot Pitman. 

Mr. Daniel Maclntyre Henderson. 

The deaths of the following members was recorded: 

Mr. Alexander H. Bell, February 21, 1939. 
Mr. Philemon Kennard Wright, April 25, 1939. 

Mr. B. H. Hartogensis read a paper entitled, " The Jews in Early Mary- 
land History." The unanimous thanks of the Society were extended to the